U21 Rankings

This page allows you to compare both the overall ranking and also the individual measures of data taken from all countries involved in the U21 Ranking of National Higher Education Systems between 2012 and 2018.

Click on a country name to find a short overview of the findings for each of the 50 countries assessed in the 2018 report.

  • Year
    2018

    Overall

    RankCountryScore
    1United States100.0
    2Switzerland88.0
    3United Kingdom82.6
    4Sweden82.4
    5Denmark81.7
    6Finland79.7
    6Netherlands79.7
    8Canada79.6
    9Singapore79.5
    10Australia78.6
    11Austria75.8
    12Norway74.5
    13Belgium73.3
    14New Zealand71.1
    15Germany69.2
    16France68.5
    17Hong Kong SAR 67.8
    18Israel66.3
    19Ireland64.8
    20Japan61.9
    21Taiwan-China60.2
    22Korea58.0
    23Saudi Arabia57.0
    24Portugal56.4
    25Spain56.2
    26Malaysia 55.7
    27Czech Republic55.6
    28Italy54.0
    29Slovenia53.6
    30China52.4
    31Poland51.3
    32Greece49.5
    33Russia49.3
    34Chile 49.0
    35Slovakia48.7
    36Hungary48.3
    37South Africa47.7
    38Ukraine 47.4
    39Brazil45.0
    40Argentina44.2
    41Turkey 44.0
    42Serbia42.8
    43Romania42.2
    44Bulgaria42.0
    45Croatia41.0
    46Mexico40.3
    47Thailand 40.0
    48Iran 38.9
    49India 36.8
    50Indonesia33.5

    Connectivity

    RankCountryScore
    1Switzerland100.0
    2Austria91.6
    3United Kingdom87.5
    4Netherlands84.2
    5Denmark81.5
    6New Zealand80.9
    7Sweden80.4
    8Finland80.1
    9Belgium77.6
    10Singapore76.8
    11United States75.9
    12Canada71.6
    13Germany71.4
    14Australia70.7
    15Ireland70.4
    16Norway69.2
    17France65.4
    18Hungary61.7
    19Hong Kong SAR 61.5
    20Israel58.8
    21Czech Republic57.9
    22Slovenia54.9
    23Taiwan-China54.5
    24Japan52.4
    25Portugal51.6
    26Saudi Arabia51.3
    27Italy50.9
    28Greece49.2
    29Spain48.3
    30Slovakia47.3
    31Korea44.8
    32South Africa44.8
    33Malaysia44.7
    34Bulgaria43.5
    35Chile42.5
    36Thailand41.1
    37Ukraine38.7
    38Serbia37.1
    39Brazil36.8
    40Poland36.7
    41Romania36.5
    42Croatia36.0
    43Argentina33.7
    44China33.5
    45Indonesia32.4
    46Russia32.0
    47Mexico30.4
    48Turkey25.4
    49India24.3
    50Iran24.3

    Environment

    RankCountryScore
    1United States100.0
    2Australia94.3
    3New Zealand93.9
    4Singapore90.7
    5Finland90.5
    6Hong Kong SAR 88.7
    7United Kingdom88.5
    8Taiwan-China87.4
    9Netherlands87.4
    10Belgium85.1
    11Switzerland84.1
    12Sweden82.7
    13Canada81.5
    14Poland81.4
    15Malaysia81.2
    16China81.2
    17Norway81.0
    18Ireland80.7
    19Israel80.2
    20Chile79.8
    21Japan79.4
    22South Africa79.2
    23Denmark79.0
    24Austria78.4
    25France78.3
    26Mexico77.7
    27Germany76.7
    28Russia76.6
    29Thailand76.5
    30Romania75.7
    31Indonesia75.4
    32Argentina75.0
    33Spain74.6
    34Czech Republic74.3
    35Portugal73.6
    36Slovenia72.7
    37Ukraine71.4
    38Italy70.9
    39Slovakia69.3
    40Iran67.3
    41Brazil66.8
    42Hungary66.3
    43Bulgaria65.9
    44Korea65.5
    45India65.3
    46Saudi Arabia64.8
    47Turkey63.2
    48Croatia60.7
    49Serbia58.8
    50Greece47.4

    Output

    RankCountryScore
    1United States100.0
    2United Kingdom70.1
    3Australia64.7
    4Switzerland64.4
    5Denmark62.9
    6Sweden62.1
    7Canada62.1
    8Netherlands59.7
    9Finland56.9
    10Israel55.5
    11Germany55.0
    12Belgium54.7
    13France54.4
    14Norway54.4
    15Singapore54.2
    16Ireland50.1
    17Japan49.6
    18Korea48.1
    19Austria47.7
    20New Zealand47.6
    21Hong Kong SAR 46.5
    22China46.2
    23Taiwan-China43.9
    24Spain43.9
    25Italy42.4
    26Russia41.0
    27Greece40.6
    28Portugal40.1
    29Slovenia38.0
    30Czech Republic36.6
    31Poland35.3
    32Hungary31.5
    33Saudi Arabia30.9
    34Slovakia29.5
    35Chile29.5
    36South Africa29.2
    37Brazil28.5
    38Argentina28.4
    39Bulgaria28.1
    40Turkey28.0
    41Croatia27.5
    42Malaysia27.1
    43Iran27.0
    44Ukraine26.5
    45Serbia25.6
    46Romania24.2
    47India20.5
    48Thailand20.1
    49Mexico16.9
    50Indonesia14.7

    Resources

    RankCountryScore
    1Switzerland100.0
    2Sweden99.3
    3Singapore97.2
    4Denmark97.1
    5Canada96.6
    6United States93.5
    7Norway90.4
    8Austria89.9
    9Finland89.8
    10Saudi Arabia89.6
    11Netherlands83.1
    12Malaysia 81.5
    13Hong Kong SAR 74.9
    14Australia74.7
    15Belgium72.0
    16United Kingdom71.7
    17France69.0
    18Germany66.7
    19Korea65.8
    20New Zealand63.6
    21Turkey 61.6
    22Israel61.4
    23Japan59.6
    24Portugal59.4
    25Ukraine 59.1
    26Czech Republic55.6
    27Greece54.4
    28Serbia53.7
    29Spain53.1
    30Ireland52.9
    31Slovakia52.9
    32Taiwan-China52.8
    33Poland52.2
    34Brazil50.5
    35Chile 49.0
    36Slovenia48.0
    37Mexico47.2
    38Italy47.0
    39India 42.4
    40Argentina41.7
    41South Africa41.6
    42Russia40.7
    43Croatia39.6
    44China38.7
    45Romania37.7
    46Iran 37.0
    47Hungary35.7
    48Bulgaria31.4
    49Thailand 29.7
    50Indonesia20.2

    Descriptions

    CountryDescription
    ArgentinaArgentina ranks 40th overall, which combines ranks of 40 in Resources, 32 in Environment, 43 in Connectivity and 38 in Output. In the Resources category, the level of government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked at 19 but total expenditure per student is ranked much lower at 45. The difference is explained by the high enrolment rate, ranked at 14. Among the Connectivity variables, the best ranking (29th) is for articles written jointly between academics and international collaborators and the worst rank is (45th) for articles written jointly with researchers from industry. Published articles per head are ranked at 44 and their average impact is ranked at 41. Argentina is ranked highly at 4 for employment of graduates compared with school leavers. When the rankings are adjusted for differences in GDP per capita Argentina is ranked at 39; its overall score is below that expected for its level of income.
    AustraliaAustralia ranks 10th overall, which combines ranks of 14 for Resources, 2 for Environment, 14 for Connectivity and 3 for Output. The ranking for Resources is pulled down by the low ranking (41st) for government expenditure on higher education, although the official data do not reflect the full cost of the student loans scheme. Private expenditure exceeds public expenditure and total expenditure as a share of GDP is ranked 8th, an improvement from 17th last year following an expansion in total enrolments. Expenditure per student is static at 11th. In the Connectivity measures, Australia has fallen to 6th on international student numbers owing to a fall in their share of non-university tertiary enrolments. Links with the private sector are at average levels: 31st for joint publications with industry and 20th for knowledge transfer. Australia is ranked ninth on total publications and 14th on their average impact. On a per capita basis, it ranks third on research publications compared with tenth on research expenditure—an indicator of efficiency. Australia ranks tenth for the (tertiary) educational qualifications of the labour force but fourth for enrolment rates. On a per capita basis, the national stock of researchers is ranked 14th but the annual number of PhD completions is ranked sixth, 37 per cent of whom are international. The unemployment rate for graduates compared with school leavers is around the median value. Australia is ranked 11th when levels of GDP per capita are taken into account and the score is above that expected at its income level.
    AustriaAustria ranks 11th overall, which combines ranks of 8 for Resources, 24 for the Environment, 2 for Connectivity and 19 for Output. In Connectivity it ranks in the top five for three of the components: the share of international students, articles co-authored with international researchers and articles co-authored with industry researchers. Austria ranks fourth for government expenditures and 14th for total expenditure as a share of GDP. Within Output, the highest rank is for the number of national researchers per head of population (tenth). It ranks 15th for PhD graduates per head. Austria ranks 19th on published articles per head of population, which compares unfavourably with research expenditure per head which is ranked fifth. Publications rank 17th on their average impact. When the rankings are adjusted for levels of GDP per capita, Austria’s ranking falls to 16th overall, but its score is around what is expected at its income level.
    BelgiumBelgium ranks 13th overall, which combines ranks of 15 for Resources, 10 for Environment, 9 for Connectivity and 12 for Output. The Output ranking has improved four places over the past six years. Total expenditure as a share of GDP is ranked 28th but government expenditure is ranked ninth and expenditure per student is ranked 16th. Within the Connectivity module, Belgium is ranked third for the proportion of articles co-authored with international collaborators. It has good links with industry: ranked seventh for joint publications and 14th for knowledge transfer. In Output, Belgium is ranked 13th for publications per head and seventh for their impact. It is ranked 13th on the quality of its top three universities and 17th for PhD completions per head of population. Belgium’s overall ranking is 14th when performance is adjusted for levels of GDP per capita and its score is above that expected for a country at its level of income.
    BrazilBrazil ranks 39th overall, which combines ranks of 34 for Resources, 41 for Environment, 39 for Connectivity and 37 for Output. The absence of official data on private expenditure and R&D expenditure means that the ranking for Resources is only an approximation. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 34th. In Connectivity, Brazil has risen to 14th in the proportion of students who are international, but collaboration with international researchers and with local business are ranked in the bottom quintile. In the Output module, Brazil is 12th on total publications but only 41st on publications per head and 46th for the average impact of papers. Around half of the publications are produced by the top 10 per cent of institutions. The country ranks 27th for the quality of its best three universities but is in the bottom 20 per cent for participation rate and the qualification of its workforce. It is ranked 37th for PhD completions. When the country standings are adjusted for levels of GDP per capita, Brazil rises to 20th in the rankings and its score is around that expected at its income level.
    BulgariaBulgaria ranks 44th overall, which combines a ranking of 48 for Resources, 43 for Environment, 34 for Connectivity and 39 for Output. Bulgaria ranks 45th for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP, a rise of five places from last year, and 44th for total expenditure. Bulgaria is ranked seventh for employment of those with a tertiary qualification relative to school leavers. Enrolment rates and the educational attainments of its workforce are around median levels. The absence of a university in the Shanghai top 500 lowers the rank for Output. Publications per head are ranked at 38. Joint publications with international authors continue to increase relative to other countries and now rank 23rd. Joint publications with industry have similarly increased and are now ranked at 24, but business ranks knowledge transfer with tertiary institutions at a low 47th. Taken together, these results imply that Connectivity is limited to specialised groups. PhD completions per head of population are ranked 25th. When account is taken of the level of GDP per capita in each country, Bulgaria is ranked 44th and its score is well below the expected level.
    CanadaCanada is ranked 8th overall, which combining ranks of 5 for Resources, 13 for Environment, 12 for Connectivity and 7 for Output. The rank for Environment has increased seven places owing to an improvement in rank from 16th to 7th in the WEF rating of educational systems by business. In Resources, Canada ranks second for total expenditure as a share of GDP and seventh for expenditure per student. In the Output category, Canada is ranked eighth for total publications and tenth for publications deflated by population. Its best three universities are ranked third. Canada is ranked first for the formal educational qualifications of its workforce. In Connectivity, Canada ranks third for web impact and 24th for joint publications with international authors. Engagement with industry is above average: ranked 12th for knowledge transfer and 17th for joint publications. Canada ranks 22nd for PhD completions per capita. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Canada ranks twelfth overall and the score is above that expected at its income level.
    ChileChile ranks 34th overall, which combines ranks of 35 for Resources, 20 for Environment, 35 for Connectivity and 35 for Output. In the Resources category, Chile is always ranked highly on total expenditure as a share of GDP (7th this year) but much lower on expenditure per student (currently 40th). However, public expenditure varies markedly across years. In the current ranking government expenditure as a share of GDP (data relate to 2015) has fallen 12 places to 39th. In the Connectivity category, Chile ranks fifth in the share of articles co-authored with international collaborators but 42nd in joint articles with industry. However, the score by business on the extent of knowledge transfer has risen eight places to 28th. In Output, Chile does best on the tertiary enrolment rate (sixth) which is gradually leading to a higher rank on the (tertiary) educational qualifications of its workforce (now 35th). However, the high enrolment rate is not seen at the PhD level where Chile ranks 43rd on completions. Chile ranks 36th for published articles per head of population. When levels of GDP per capita are allowed for, Chile ranks 31st overall; although an improvement of five places this year, its score remains below that expected at its income level.
    ChinaChina ranks 30th overall, a rise of 10 places over the last six years. The overall rank combines ranks of 44 for Resources, 16 for Environment, 44 for Connectivity and 22 for Output. In the Resources category, total expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 32th. Within the Connectivity category, knowledge transfer with business is ranked 22nd and the share of articles co-authored with industry is ranked 39th. Although the proportion of articles written with international collaborators is the third lowest of all countries it has risen by five percentage points to 23 per cent. In Output, China is ranked second on total publications but 43nd when population is allowed for. Around half of the publications are produced by the top 10 per cent of institutions. China ranks in the top quartile for the quality of its best three universities. It ranks second on PhD completions but 42nd on a population adjusted basis. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, China’s overall rank improves to 18th and its score is above that expected at its income level.
    CroatiaCroatia ranks 45th overall, which combines ranks of 43 for Resources, 48 for Environment, 42 for Connectivity and 41 for Output. The Output rank has fallen by seven places because Croatia no longer has a university in the Shanghai top 500. Public expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP has risen 11 places to 25th. Environment has fallen four places following the availability of the new EUA data on autonomy of institutions. External joint publications are the highest ranked components in Connectivity: international co-authored papers are ranked at 26 and those co-authored with industry are ranked at 22. However, knowledge transfer with business is ranked at 48, suggesting that external links are with specialised groups. The Output category includes a rank of 29 for publications per head and their average impact is ranked at 36. 60 per cent of publications emanate from one university (Zagreb). Enrolment rates are at median levels and it is ranked 23rd for PhD completions. Croatia scores well (rank 16) for employment of those with a tertiary qualification compared with school leavers. Croatia’s overall rank is 46 when allowance is made for income differences across countries and its overall score is less than expected at its level of income.
    Czech RepublicThe Czech Republic ranks 27th overall, which combines ranks of 26 for Resources, 34 for Environment, 21 for Connectivity and 30 for Output. Expenditure (both public and private) as a share of GDP is ranked 39th and research expenditure 16th. The highest ranking in Connectivity is for the international student share (10th). Joint publications with international authors ranks 32nd. The Czech Republic is ranked 18th for joint publications with industry but business views on knowledge transfer give a much lower rank of 39. This suggests that external engagement is specialised. Most of the Output variables yield values around median levels, except that the country performs well on the criterion of unemployment levels for those with a tertiary qualification compared with school leavers (ranked 12th). Publications adjusted for population are ranked equal 20th and their impact 25th. The Output rank has remained remarkably stable over six years of ranking. PhD completions per capita are ranked 18th. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account the Czech Republic is ranked 24th and its score is about that expected at its level of income.
    DenmarkDenmark is ranked fifth overall, which combines ranks of 4 for Resources, 23 for Environment, 5 for Connectivity and 5 for Output. Within the Resources category, it is ranked sixth for government expenditure as a share of GDP and 17th for total expenditure (public plus private) per student. Denmark is ranked first for spending on research and development by tertiary institutions (as a share of GDP) and second for the number of national researchers per head of population. It ranks fourth for PhD completions per capita. In the Connectivity module, Denmark is ranked fourth for both joint publications with industry and knowledge transfer, and ninth for joint publications with international authors. In Output it is ranked first for publications per head of population and fifth for their average impact. Denmark is ranked third for the overall quality of its universities. Denmark maintains its overall ranking of fourth when adjustment is made for different levels of GDP per capita. Its score is well above that expected at its level of income.
    FinlandFinland ranks sixth overall, which combines ranks of 9 for Resources, 5 for Environment, 8 for Connectivity and 9 for Output. It ranks third in government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP and 11th on total expenditure (public plus private) per student. It ranks fifth in the number of national researchers per head of population and PhD completions per head are ranked ninth. Allowing for population, Finland ranks sixth on publications which roughly matches its rank on research expenditure of 8th. The average impact of papers is ranked 15th. Enrolment rates are ranked seventh which compares with a rank of 11 for the tertiary qualifications of the workforce. In Connectivity, Finland is ranked fourth for Web impact and eighth for knowledge transfer with business. In joint publications it is ranked tenth for those with international authors and ninth for those with industry. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account Finland is ranked in first place and its score is well above what is expected given its level of income.
    FranceFrance ranks 16th overall, which combines ranks of 17 in Resources, 25 in Environment, 17 in Connectivity, and 13 in Output. Within the Resources category it is ranked 16th for government expenditure as a share of GDP and 18th for total expenditure per student. (Private expenditure is about 20 per cent of total expenditure.) In Connectivity, France ranks 12th for joint publications with industry and 14th for joint publications with international authors. France ranks 12th for international students. In the Output module, France is ranked equal sixth for the standing of its best three universities. The total number of publications by the country’s universities is ranked fifth but this falls to equal 20th when adjusted for population, compared with a rank of 11 for research expenditure. Around one-half of publications emanate from the top 10 per cent of institutions. The average impact of publications is ranked 16th. France is ranked 20th for researchers per head and 21st for PhD completions per head. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, France’s overall rank is 19 and its score is around the level expected at its level of income.
    GermanyGermany is ranked 15th overall, which combines ranks of 18 for Resources, 27 for Environment, 13 for Connectivity and 11 for Output. In the Resources category it ranks 38th on total expenditure (public plus private) as a share of GDP but 14th on expenditure per student. The difference is explained by the lower rank (27th) for the participation rate in higher education. In Connectivity Germany performs well on links with industry: ranked eighth for joint publications and tenth for knowledge transfer. It ranks 21st for the share of publications that have international co-authors. In Output, German universities are ranked fourth for total publications and 23rd for publications deflated by population even though research expenditure is ranked 11th. The average impact of publications is ranked 11th. Germany ranks equal sixth for the standing of its best three universities and seventh for PhD completions per capita. The Environment score is pulled down in part because the points awarded for national policy disadvantage federations. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account Germany’s overall ranking falls to 29th and its score is just below what is expected given its level of income.
    GreeceGreece is ranked equal 32th overall, which combines ranks of 27 for Resources, 50 for Environment, 28 for Connectivity and 27 for Output. It ranks 11th for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP but 41st for expenditure per student. This difference is explained by the high recorded participation rate in tertiary education (ranked 1st). The low Environment rank occurs because of an excessively centralised system and low grade from business. In Connectivity, Greece is ranked 26th for joint publications with industry but the tertiary system is rated lowly by business for knowledge transfer (45th). This suggests that external links are specialised. Web connectivity is around median levels. Other than for the highly-ranked participation rate, the rankings for all the Output measures lie around median values: ranging from a rank of 20 for the average impact of research articles to 31st for the quality of its best three universities. On a per head basis, the rank for publications (27th) roughly matches that for research expenditure (29th). Greece ranks 31st for PhD completions per head. When account is taken of levels of per capita GDP, Greece’s overall ranking improves to 17th and is at the level expected at its level of income.
    Hong Kong SARHong Kong SAR is ranked 17th overall, which combines ranks of 13 for Resources, 6 for Environment, 19 for Connectivity and 21 for Output. The Environment score is high reflecting a system that gives significant autonomy to institutions while maintaining overall surveillance. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP has fallen and is now ranked 22nd, a fall of eight places. Total expenditure per student is ranked sixth. In Connectivity, Hong Kong SAR is ranked ninth for articles co-authored with international collaborators. The higher education sector is ranked 16th for business satisfaction with the extent of knowledge transfer but is ranked lower at 35th for articles written with industry. Web-based connectivity is ranked 12th. In the Output category, Hong Kong SAR is ranked 14th on publications per head and equal ninth on the average impact of articles. Publications are relatively evenly spread over institutions and it ranks 11th for depth of its universities. When account is taken of levels of GDP per capita Hong Kong’s ranking falls to 32nd and its score is a little below that expected at its relatively high income level.
    HungaryHungary is ranked 36th overall, which combines ranks of 47 for Resources, 42 for Environment, 18 for Connectivity and 32 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP ranks 44th. Declines in both public and private expenditure has this year seen total expenditure as a share of GDP decline fifteen places to 48th. Total expenditure per student ranks 38th. The Connectivity ranking includes sixth in joint publications with industry but business ranks knowledge transfer lower at 33. Joint publications with international authors rank 16th. Within the Output category, Hungary is ranked second for employment of the tertiary educated workforce compared with those who left after completing final year of schooling. It is ranked 31st on publications per head and equal 27th for their impact. PhD completions per head are ranked 33rd. The Output rank is pulled down by the absence of a university in the Shanghai top 500. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Hungary’s ranking is 41st and its score is below that expected at its income level.
    IndiaIndia is ranked 49th overall, which combines ranks of 39 for Resources, 45 for Environment, 49 for Connectivity and 47 for Output. It is ranked 18th for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP but 47th for expenditure on research by tertiary institutions. Under Environment, India scores low grades for institutional autonomy and data quality. Within the Connectivity category, India ranks well down for joint publications: both with international authors (50th) and with industry (46th). It is scored a little higher by business on knowledge transfer (35th). It rates lowly for web connectivity. Within the Output category, India ranks 10th on total publications but 49th on publications per head, which roughly matches the research expenditure rank of 47. Nearly half the articles emanate from the top 10 per cent of institutions. The average impact of articles is ranked at 42. PhD completions per head rank 46th. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, India’s overall ranking rises to 26th owing mainly to a large increase in the ranking for Resources (now 11th). India’s GDP-adjusted overall score is around the level expected at its income level.
    IndonesiaIndonesia is ranked 50th overall, which combines ranks of 50 for Resources, 31 for Environment, 45 for Connectivity and 50 for Output. It is ranked 50th for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP. In Connectivity, Indonesia ranks, 32nd for joint publications with industry, 43rd for joint publications with international authors and 29th for knowledge transfer with business. Indonesia ranks in the bottom 20 per cent for all Output measures (except employment rates of the tertiary educated compared with school leavers) and loses points for not having a university in the Shanghai top 500. It ranks 45th for PhD completions per head. When allowance is made for levels of per capita GDP, Indonesia’s overall ranking remains at 50 and the score is well below that expected at its income level.
    IranIran is ranked 48th overall, which combines ranks of 46 for Resources, 40 for Environment, 50 for Connectivity and 43 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 36th, an improvement of seven places. Connectivity remains very low. Iran ranks 50th for joint publications with industry and 47th for joint publications with international authors. Web-based impact is ranked 45th. The number of articles published by Iranian authors is ranked 16th, but this falls to 39th when population differences are allowed for; the average impact of articles is ranked 44th. Iran ranks 23rd for enrolment rates, 39th for the (tertiary) educational qualifications of its workforce, and 36th for PhD completions per head. When account is taken of levels of GDP per capita, the rank for Output improves to 22nd and is about the level expected at Iran’s level of income. However, the improvement in the overall rank is less dramatic (to 37th) and the score is below that expected.
    IrelandIreland is ranked 19th overall, which combines ranks of 30 for Resources, 18 for Environment, 15 for Connectivity and 16 for Output. Improvements in the ranking of outcomes (Connectivity and Output) have offset deteriorations in inputs (Resources and Environment) to keep the overall rank unchanged. Government expenditure as a share of GDP has fallen 15 places to 35th and the Environment rank has fallen four places to 15 because of reductions in the financial autonomy of institutions. Expenditure per student is ranked 21st. In Connectivity, the business rating of knowledge transfer has improved markedly to sixth. Joint publications with industry are ranked 23rd and with international authors 18th. Under Output, Ireland is ranked 11th on publications per head of population and 21st on their average impact. It ranks 14th for the educational levels of its workforce and sixth for employment of those with a tertiary qualification compared with school leavers. PhD completions per head are ranked fifth. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita the ranking is 36th but because of the importance of foreign firms in Ireland the rank would be higher if Gross National Income was used as a measure of income.
    IsraelIsrael is ranked 18th overall, which combines ranks of 22 for Resources, 19 for Environment, 20 for Connectivity and 10 for Output. Israel ranks 32nd for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP, which improves to 22nd when private expenditure is added. Expenditure per student is also ranked 22nd. Expenditure in tertiary institutions on R&D as a percentage of GDP is ranked 13th. Israel is ranked first for the number of researchers in the country per head of population although PhD completions per head are ranked lower at 28th. Israel is ranked seventh for the depth of quality universities. Research output per head of population is ranked 17th and the average impact of articles is ranked 19th. Israel is ranked fifth for knowledge transfer with business and 20th for joint articles with industry. Web impact is ranked 18th. Israel is ranked fourth for the educational qualifications of its workforce. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, the ranking improves to ninth and the score is above that expected at Israel’s income level.
    ItalyItaly is ranked equal 28th overall, which combines ranks of 38 for Resources, 38 for Environment, 27 for Connectivity and 25 for Output. The indicators show very little change from last year. Government expenditure on higher education (75 per cent of total expenditure) as a share of GDP is ranked 40th and expenditure per student is ranked 28th. In Connectivity, joint publications of academics with industry are ranked 19th and joint publications with international authors 27th. Knowledge transfer with firms is ranked 30th. In the Output category, Italian tertiary institutions publish the seventh largest number of journal articles but this rank falls to 22 when deflated by population size, roughly matching the rank of 24 for research expenditure per head. The average impact of articles is ranked 12th. The three best performing universities are ranked equal 20th. Italy ranks 42nd on the education qualifications of its workforce, 34th on number of researchers per head of population, and 29th on PhD completions per head. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Italy’s ranking falls to 33rd and its score is below that expected at its income level.
    JapanJapan is ranked 20th overall, which combines ranks of 23 for Resources, 21 for Environment, 24 for Connectivity and 17 for Output, little changed from last year. Total expenditure on higher education (of which two-thirds is private) as a share of GDP is ranked 21st but, because the participation rate is a little below average, expenditure per student is ranked 12th. Connectivity is predominantly internal: Japan ranks fifth for the percentage of articles written jointly with industry collaborators, and knowledge transfer with domestic business is ranked 24th. In contrast, the international student share is ranked 33rd and the percentage of articles co-authored with international researchers is ranked a lowly 44th. In Output, Japan ranks sixth on total articles published but 32nd when population size is allowed for, lower than the rank for research expenditure of 20. Nearly half the articles emanate from the top 10 per cent of institutions. The average impact of articles is ranked equal 35th. Japan ranks fifth on the quality of its best three universities. It ranks third on the educational qualifications of its workforce, ninth for the number of researchers in the country but 32nd for the number of completing PhDs. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Japan’s rank falls to 35 and is below the level expected at its income level.
    KoreaKorea is ranked 22nd overall, which combines ranks of 19 for Resources, 44 for Environment, 31 for Connectivity and 18 for Output. Government expenditure as a share of GDP has improved by five places to 24th, but it still represents only 45 per cent of total expenditure on higher education. Total expenditure as a share of GDP ranks seventh but expenditure per student ranks much lower at 33rd because Korea has the third highest participation rate. The rank for Environment is pulled down by the relatively low proportion of students and staff who are female. Korean links with industry are ranked 13th for joint publications but 26th for knowledge transfer. Joint publications with international authors are ranked 46th. In the Output category, Korea ranks 11th on total publications but 25th when adjusted for population size, the same rank as for research expenditure. The average impact of publications is ranked at 33. Korea ranks sixth on the education qualifications of its workforce; third on total researchers in the nation (adjusted for population); and 14th for PhD completions per head. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Korea’s overall rank falls to 34 and is a little below that expected at its income level.
    MalaysiaMalaysia is ranked 26th overall, which combines ranks of 12 for Resources, 15 for Environment, 33 for Connectivity and 42 for Output. Malaysia is ranked eighth for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP; expenditure per student ranks tenth. Expenditure on R&D in tertiary institutions as a share of GDP was abnormally high in last year’s rankings (11th) and has now returned to more typical values (ranked 24th). In Connectivity, Malaysia is ranked 17th for knowledge transfer with business, but 48th for joint publications with industry. Joint publications with international authors have risen in rank to 34th. Using the new data base, Malaysian institutions are ranked 23rd for total publications and 34th for both publications per head of population and the average impact of articles. The country is ranked 37th for the educational attainment of the workforce and 31st for the number of researchers in the nation (adjusted for population). PhD completions per head are ranked 34th. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Malaysia’s overall ranking improves to 23rd and the estimated overall score is around the level expected at Malaysia’s income level.
    MexicoMexico is ranked 46th overall, which combines ranks of 37 for Resources, 26 for Environment, 47 for Connectivity and 49 for Output. Both public and private expenditure on higher education has increased noticeably since last year’s ranking: the rank of total expenditure as a share of GDP has increased ten places to 27th. Expenditure per student has improved five places to 35th. Mexico ranks 40th for expenditure by tertiary institutions on R&D as a share of GDP. In Connectivity, Mexico ranks 47th for joint publications with industry and 36th for knowledge transfer. Joint publications with international authors are ranked 36th. Web connectivity is well below average. In Output, Mexico is ranked equal 33rd for total publications but 47th when adjusted for population. Tertiary enrolment rates are ranked 48th; PhD completions per head are ranked 39th. When account is taken of levels of GDP per capita Mexico’s overall rank is 49 and the overall score is well below that expected at Mexico’s level of income. The recent increase in resources can be expected to improve outcomes in future years.
    NetherlandsThe Netherlands is ranked sixth overall, which combines ranks of 11 for Resources, 8 for Environment, 4 for Connectivity and 8 for Output. It is ranked 13th for total expenditure on higher education (which is 70 per cent government funded) as a share of GDP, an increase of five places. Expenditure per student is ranked ninth. It ranks highly for Connectivity with business: second for joint publications and third for knowledge transfer. Joint publications with international authors are ranked 11th and web connectivity is above average. In Output, the Netherlands performs strongly in research publications per head (seventh, which exactly matches the research expenditure rank) and their average impact is ranked third. The participation rate is ranked 19th, and the education qualifications of the workforce 20th. The standing of its universities is high: ranked fifth for depth (the Netherlands has the most even spread of publications across institutions) and 10th for its best three universities. The Netherlands ranks 13th for the national stock of researchers per head and 12th for PhD completions per head. When account is taken of levels of GDP per capita the overall rank is 13. The scores for each of the four broad categories and overall are above those expected at the Netherland’s income levels.
    New ZealandNew Zealand is ranked equal 14th overall, which combines ranks of 20 for Resources, 3 for Environment, 6 for Connectivity and 20 for Output. For expenditure as a share of GDP, New Zealand is ranked 29th for government expenditure and 9th for total expenditure. In Connectivity, New Zealand’s highest score is for the percentage of students who are international, where it is ranked first. International students make up a third of short-cycle tertiary programmes. It ranks 11th for the annual number of PhD completions, 51 per cent of whom are international (ranked second). New Zealand is ranked 12th for publications with international researchers and 25th for publications with industry. The rank for business views on knowledge transfer is 19, a fall of nine places from last year’s ranking. On a per capita basis, New Zealand is ranked 15th for publications per head but 26th for research expenditure: the difference is indicative of high productivity. It ranks 18th on the average impact of publications. New Zealand’s tertiary enrolment rate is ranked 10th and the tertiary educational qualifications of its workforce 19th. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, New Zealand’s rank improves to tenth and its score is above the level expected at its income level.
    NorwayNorway is ranked 12th overall, which combines ranks of 7 for Resources, 17 for Environment, 16 for Connectivity and 14 for Output. In expenditure as a share of GDP, Norway is ranked 5th for public expenditure (95 per cent of total expenditure) and 17th for total expenditure. Expenditure per student is ranked eighth. In Connectivity, co-authorship with international collaborators is ranked eighth and with industry 15th. Web connectivity is ranked eighth. There is a matching of research expenditure as a share of GDP (10th) with research publications per head (ranked ninth). Norway ranks ninth for both the average impact of publications and the depth of quality universities. It is ranked 20th for participation rates in higher education, 12th for the tertiary educational qualifications of the workforce and eighth for the number of national researchers per head. It ranks thirteenth for PhD completions per head. Norway’s overall rank falls to 28th when account is taken of levels of GDP per head and the overall score is around that expected at its high income level.
    PolandPoland is ranked 31st overall, which combines ranks of 33 for Resources, 14 for Environment, 40 for Connectivity and 31 for Output. In expenditure as a share of GDP, Poland is ranked 17th for public expenditure, 33rd for total expenditure and 31st for research expenditure. Connectivity with industry is below average: Poland ranks 38th in joint articles with industry and 34th in knowledge transfer with business, but the latter has improved 13 places since last year. In joint articles with international collaborators Poland is ranked 40th. Web connectivity is a little below the median. In Output, Poland is ranked 18th on published articles but this falls to 30th when adjusted for population. The average impact of articles is ranked at 27. Participation rates are ranked 28nd and the tertiary educational qualifications of the workforce 26th. PhD completion rates (per head) rank 35th. Poland performs well (fifth) on the employment rates of those with a tertiary qualification compared with those who only complete final year of schooling. Poland’s rank improves to 27th when account is taken of levels of GDP per capita and its score is around that expected at its income level.
    PortugalPortugal is ranked 24th overall, an improvement of three places. The component ranks are 24 for Resources, 35 for Environment, 25 for Connectivity and 28 for Output. In expenditure as a share of GDP, Portugal is ranked 31st for both public expenditure, an improvement of six places from last year’s ranking, and total expenditure. Under the heading of Connectivity, Portugal is ranked 19th for joint publications with international researchers and 37th for publications with industry. Knowledge transfer with business is ranked 25th. In the Output module, publications per head are ranked 12th whereas research expenditure per head ranks only 19th, which is an indicator of efficiency. Portugal ranks 30th in the tertiary educational qualifications of the workforce, but the tertiary enrolment rate is ranked lower at 36th. After allowing for population, Portugal ranks 22nd for the number of researchers in the country and 19th for PhD completions. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Portugal’s ranking jumps to sixth (third on Output) and its score is above that expected at its level of income.
    RomaniaRomania is ranked 43rd overall, which combines ranks of 45 for Resources, 30 for Environment, 41 for Connectivity and 46 for Output. The Connectivity score has fallen nine places as a consequence of the score recorded by business for knowledge transfer falling to 42nd. Total expenditure as a share of GDP is ranked 41st and research expenditure 43rd. The Environment measure benefits from institutions having a relatively high percentage of female staff (ranked fifth). In the Connectivity measures, joint publications with international authors are ranked 42nd and those with co-authors from industry are ranked 36th. The absence of a university in the top 500 lowers the Output score. Romania is ranked 37th on research articles per head and 40th on their average impact. The number of PhD completions (per head) is ranked 26th. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita Romania is ranked 47th and its score is well below that expected at its level of income.
    RussiaRussia is ranked 33rd overall, which combines ranks of 42 for Resources, 28 for Environment, 46 for Connectivity and 26 for Output. For expenditure as a share of GDP, Russia is ranked 37th for public expenditure, 35th for total expenditure and 42nd for research expenditure. In the Connectivity module, Russia is relatively weak on interactions with industry: it is ranked 43rd for each of joint publications with industry and knowledge transfer with firms. It ranks 35th for joint publications with international researchers. In the Output module, Russia is ranked second for the educational qualifications of its workforce and ninth for the employment rates of those with a tertiary qualification compared with school leavers. The annual number of PhD completions ranks 24th. Total research publications rank 20th, publications per head 45th and their average impact 32nd. Over the last six years Russia has improved six places on Output. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita the rank is 43 and the GDP adjusted score for Russia is well below that expected at its income level.
    Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia is ranked equal 23rd overall, which combines ranks of 10 for Resources, 46 for Environment, 26 for Connectivity and 33 for Output. It is ranked first for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP. In the Connectivity module, Saudi Arabia is ranked first for the share of publications that have an international collaborator but it is ranked only 40th for joint publications with industry. Web connectivity is in the lowest quintile. The highest score in the Output module is for the quality of its best three universities which are ranked 16th and account for two-thirds of publications in the country. Saudi Arabia is ranked 40th for publications per head and 22nd for their average impact. The annual number of PhD completions is ranked 47th. High government expenditure is now showing up in the Output rank that has improved 12 places over the last six years, the largest improvement for any country. However, Saudi Arabia’s high level of GDP per capita inevitably means that its ranking falls (to 48th) when income levels are allowed for. The GDP adjusted score for Saudi Arabia is well below that expected at its income level.
    SerbiaSerbia is ranked 42nd overall, which combines ranks of 28 for Resources, 49 for Environment, 38 for Connectivity and 45 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 13th and expenditure by institutions on R&D is ranked 27th. Using the new EUA rating for Serbia for the financial autonomy of institutions has lowered the score for the policy Environment. Serbia ranks 41st on joint publications with industry and 35tht on joint publications with international authors. In the Output module, Serbia ranks 33rd in publications per head and 47th in their average impact. Serbia ranks 29th for the average quality of its universities but 60 per cent of publications emanate from one university (Belgrade). It is ranked 36th for the tertiary education qualifications of the work force and 37th for the tertiary enrolment rate. In per capita terms, Serbia ranks 33rd for the national stock of researchers and 30th for the annual number of PhD completions. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita Serbia’s rank jumps to third place and the score is well above that expected for its level of income.
    SingaporeSingapore is ranked ninth overall, which combines ranks of 3 for Resources, 4 for Environment, 10 for Connectivity and 15 for Output. It ranks 23rd for government expenditure on tertiary education as a share of GDP but first for total expenditure (public plus private) per student. Singapore ranks second for R&D expenditure by universities per head of population and this is reflected in the ranking of fifth for publications per head and sixth for their average impact. In the Connectivity category, it ranks second for the relative importance of international students and sixth for joint publications with international authors. In engagement with the private sector, Singapore ranks ninth for knowledge transfer with firms but 33rd for joint scientific publications with industry. The (tertiary) educational qualifications of the workforce is ranked 13th and the number of national researchers per head is ranked sixth. When allowance is made for national levels of GDP per head Singapore’s ranking falls to 21st but the score is around what is expected at its high income level.
    SlovakiaSlovakia is ranked 35th overall, which combines ranks of 31 for Resources, 39 for Environment, 30 for Connectivity and 34 for Output. Total expenditure on higher education (of which nearly 80 per cent is by government) as a share of GDP is ranked 45th; government expenditure at 33rd. Research expenditure by tertiary institutions as a share of GDP has risen 19 places to 12th. This can be expected to flow through to research performance in later years. Currently, Slovakia is ranked 28th for publications per head and 26th for their average impact. Within the Connectivity module, Slovakia is ranked 33rd for joint publications with international researchers, 21st for joint scientific publications with industry and 40th for knowledge transfer with firms. The Output score is lowered by the absence of any university in the Shanghai top 500. On a per capita basis, the national stock of researchers ranks 28th which can be expected to increase as the annual number of PhD completions ranks eighth. Slovakia ranks seventeenth for the employment rate of those with a tertiary qualification compared with school leavers. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Slovakia’s rank falls to 40th and its score is well below that expected at its income level.
    SloveniaSlovenia is ranked 29th overall, which combines ranks of 36 for Resources, 36 for Environment, 22 for Connectivity and 29 for Output. It is ranked around the median level for many of the indicators. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 27th but because private expenditure is low (14 per cent) total expenditure is ranked 43rd. On a per capita basis, publications per head rank 16th, a creditable performance given that R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions ranks only 32nd. Nearly 70 percent of publications emanant from one university (Ljnbljana). In the Connectivity module, joint scientific papers with industry are ranked 11th but business ranks knowledge transfer at a low 37th. This suggests engagement is specialised. The share of publications that are joint with international authors is ranked 13th. Slovenia has slipped five places in the Output ranking over the last six years. The tertiary qualification rate of the labour force is ranked 24th, but this will increase as the participation rate in higher education is ranked 13th. On a per capita basis Slovenia is ranked 23rd for the number of researchers in the nation but this is likely to rise as annual PhD completions are ranked third. When allowance is made for levels of GDP per capita, Slovenia is ranked 25th and the score is around that expected at its income level.
    South AfricaSouth Africa is ranked 37th overall, which combines ranks of 41 for resources, 23 for Environment, 32 for Connectivity and 36 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 47th and research expenditure 35th. The Environment score is dragged down by a very low score on the World Economic Forum rating by business (ranked 47th) and its rank of 37 for data quality. In Connectivity, South Africa is 17th for the percentage of joint publications with international researchers, 29th for joint publications with industry and 32nd for knowledge transfer with firms. But web-based connectivity is in the bottom decile. South Africa’s rank in the Output module has improved six places over the last six years. The tertiary education sector is ranked equal 28th for total publications, 42nd for publications per head and 24th for their average impact. Both enrolment rates and the educational qualifications of the workforce are in the bottom decile. South Africa ranks 41st on the annual number of PhD completions. It ranks first for the employment of those with a tertiary qualification compare with school leavers. When allowance is made for differences in GDP per head, South Africa’s rank jumps to eighth and the score is well above that expected at its level of income.
    SpainSpain is ranked 25th overall, which combines ranks of 29 for Resources, 33 for Environment, 29 for Connectivity and 24 for Output. As a share of GDP, Spain is ranked 30th for government expenditure on higher education (about 70 per cent of total expenditure), 34th for total expenditure and 29th for research expenditure. In engagement with the private sector, Spain ranks 27th for joint scientific publications with industry and 38th for knowledge transfer. Joint publications with international collaborators are ranked 25th. Spain’s tertiary institutions are ranked 23rd for web connectivity. In Output, Spain is ranked 13th for total publications and 26th on a per capita basis. The average impact of published articles is ranked 23rd. In the educational qualifications of the workforce, Spain is ranked 21st but this will increase as the participation rate in tertiary education is ranked fifth. On a per capita basis, the national stock of researchers is ranked 28th and the annual number of PhD completions 16th. When allowance is made for differences in GDP per head, Spain’s rank is 30 and its score is a little below that expected at its level of income.
    SwedenSweden is ranked fourth overall, which combines ranks of 2 for Resources, 12 for Environment, 7 for Connectivity and 6 for Output. In Resources as a share of GDP, Sweden is ranked seventh for government expenditure (about 90 per cent of total expenditure), 16th for total expenditure and third for research expenditure. Expenditure per student is ranked fifth. Sweden’s lowest rank is for the policy Environment which owes to its score for institutional autonomy being only around median values. Sweden performs well in engagement with industry: ranks third for joint publications and 13th for knowledge transfer. It ranks seventh for joint publications with international researchers and is in the top ten for web connectivity. In Output, Sweden is ranked fourth for publications per head and eighth for their average impact. Its university sector is ranked second for average quality. It is ranked 16th for the (tertiary) educational qualifications of its workforce. On a per capita basis, Sweden ranks fourth for the number of researchers in the nation and tenth for the annual number of PhD completions. When allowance is made for levels of GDP per capita, Sweden is ranked fifth overall and its score is well above that expected at its level of income.
    SwitzerlandSwitzerland is ranked second overall, which combines ranks of 1 for Resources, 11 for Environment, 1 for Connectivity and 4 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP ranks 12th and expenditure per student third. Connectivity within the nation and externally is high. It is rated first for knowledge transfer with firms, 10th for joint publications with industry, and third for joint publications with international researchers. It is fourth for the proportion of students who are international. At the PhD level it ranks first for the annual number of PhD completions, 54 per cent of whom are international. Web-based impact is ranked second. On a per capita basis, Switzerland is ranked second for publications which reflects its number one rank for R&D expenditure. Publications are ranked number one for average impact. Its universities are ranked first for average quality. Switzerland ranks 15th for the (tertiary) educational qualifications of its workforce and 16th for the number of researchers in the nation per head of population. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Switzerland is ranked seventh and its score is well above that expected at its level of income.
    Taiwan-ChinaTaiwan-China is ranked 21st overall, which combines ranks of 32 for Resources, 9 for Environment, 23 for Connectivity and 23 for Output. Expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 24th, of which 55 per cent is private. In Connectivity, knowledge transfer with firms is ranked 18th but joint scientific publications with industry are ranked lower at 34th. Joint publications with international researchers are rated lowly at 45th. Taiwan-China ranks 13th for Web connectivity. In Output, it is ranked 17th for total publications and 39th for their average impact. It is ranked seventh for the educational qualifications of its workforce and 12th for the enrolment rate in higher education. Taiwan-China is well provided with researchers per head of population where it is ranked seventh. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Taiwan-China slips to 38th in the ranking and is below the level expected at its income level.
    ThailandThailand is ranked equal 47th overall, which combines ranks of 49 for Resources, 29 for Environment, 36 for Connectivity and 48 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 46th and expenditure on R&D is ranked 41st. In Connectivity, knowledge transfer with industry is ranked 27th, joint publications with industry 28th, and joint articles with international researchers 30th. The Output score is negatively impacted by Thailand having no university in the Shanghai top 500. Publications per head are ranked 46th and their average impact 38th. The (tertiary) educational qualifications of the workforce is ranked 45th. The annual number of PhD completions is ranked 44th. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Thailand ranks 45th and the adjusted score is well below that expected at its level of income.
    TurkeyTurkey is ranked equal 41st overall, which combines ranks of 21 for Resources, 47 for Environment, 48 for Connectivity and 40 for Output. Calculated as shares of GDP, government expenditure on higher education ranks tenth, total expenditure ranks 12th, and research expenditure by tertiary institutions ranks 19th. Connectivity is weak: the highest rank is 39 for Web impact. Knowledge transfer as viewed by business is ranked 41st, a fall of 12 places from last year’s ranking. Joint articles with international authors and with industry are each ranked 49th. In Output, Turkish institutions of higher education rank 15th for total publications but 36th for publications per head. Citations per article are ranked 45th. Participation rates are ranked second but it will take time for this to flow through fully to the educational qualifications of the workforce (currently ranked 41st). On a per capita basis, the number of researchers is ranked 39th and the annual number of PhD completions is ranked 38th. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Turkey’s rank is 42nd and its score is well below that expected at its level of income.
    UkraineUkraine is ranked 38th overall, which combines ranks of 25 for Resources, 37 for Environment, 37 for Connectivity and 44 for Output. Ukraine is second for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP. However, because of the relatively high participation rate (ranked 16th) expenditure per student is in the lower decile. R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions as a share of GDP has a low ranking of 45. In Connectivity, Ukraine ranks 30th for joint scientific publications with industry but only 46th for knowledge transfer. It ranks 31st for joint publications with international authors. In Output, Ukraine loses points for not having a flagship university in the Shanghai top 500. Ukraine ranks 50th for total publications, 48th for publications per head of population, and 50th for their average impact. The Output rank has fallen nine places over the last six years. The level of (tertiary) educational qualifications of its workforce is ranked fifth. Using per capita figures, the number of national researchers is ranked 40th and the annual number of PhD completions is ranked 27th. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Ukraine’s overall ranking improves to 22nd and its score is about that expected at its income level.
    United KingdomThe United Kingdom is ranked third overall, an improvement of seven places over the last seven years. The overall rank combines ranks of 16 for Resources, 7 for Environment, 3 for Connectivity and 2 for Output. Total expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked tenth. The OECD method of splitting total expenditure between public and private is not consistent over time, but in the current data public expenditure ranks 48th. Expenditure per student is ranked fourth which reflects the lower than average participation rate (ranked 39th). Connectivity with industry is relatively strong: the United Kingdom ranks seventh for knowledge transfer with business and 14th for joint scientific publications. The rank for joint publications with international authors is 15. The United Kingdom ranks third for the percentage of students who are international and fifth for the number of times external users access websites. In the Output category, the United Kingdom ranks third for total publications and fourth for the average impact of articles. On a per capita basis, research publications rank eighth compared with a rank of 18 for research expenditure, which implies an above-average level of efficiency. Nearly half the articles emanate from the top 10 per cent of institutions. The United Kingdom ranks second for the quality of its best three universities. It is ranked ninth for the (tertiary) educational qualifications of the workforce. In per capita terms, the United Kingdom ranks 17th for the national stock of researchers but second for the annual number of PhD completions, 43 per cent of whom are international. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, the United Kingdom is ranked second and its score is well above the level expected at its income level.
    United StatesThe United States is ranked first overall, which combines ranks of 6 for Resources, 1 for Environment, 11 for Connectivity and 1 for Output. Expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked first (public expenditure has fallen to one-third of the total) and expenditure per student second. Links with the private sector are strong: knowledge transfer is rated second and joint scientific publications 16th. However, as is expected for other large countries, the percentage of publications that are joint with international authors ranks much lower at 38. Although the United States has the largest absolute number of international students, as a share of its total students it ranks only 26th. It ranks first for the number of times external users access websites of tertiary institutions even when adjusted for population. In Output, the United States is first for total publications and fourth for the average impact of articles. On a per capita basis it ranks 18th for publications, similar to the rank for research expenditure of 14. Around 50 per cent of publications emanate from the top 10 per cent of institutions. The United States ranks eighth for participation rates and ninth for the (tertiary) educational credentials of its workforce. It is ranked first for the quality of its best three universities. On a per capita basis it is ranked 19th for the national stock of researchers and 20th for the annual number of PhD completions. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, the overall rank for the United States falls to 15th but its score is above the level expected at its income level.

    Overall - Dev

    RankCountryScore
    1Finland20.2
    2United Kingdom18.7
    3Serbia17.4
    4Denmark15.8
    5Sweden14.4
    6Portugal14.3
    7Switzerland13.6
    8South Africa13.4
    9Israel12.7
    10New Zealand12.4
    11Australia11.3
    12Canada10.8
    13Netherlands9.2
    14Belgium5.8
    15United States5.6
    16Austria1.9
    17Greece1.8
    18China1.8
    19France-0.6
    20Brazil-1.6
    21Singapore-2.0
    22Ukraine-3.4
    23Malaysia-4.9
    24Czech Republic-6.0
    25Slovenia-8.1
    26India-9.1
    27Poland-9.4
    28Norway-9.7
    29Germany-9.7
    30Spain-12.0
    31Chile-13.7
    32Hong Kong SAR -14.7
    33Italy-16.3
    34Korea-18.9
    35Japan-21.7
    36Ireland-22.8
    37Iran-22.9
    38Taiwan-China-23.3
    39Argentina-27.6
    40Slovakia-28.7
    41Hungary-29.0
    42Turkey-31.1
    43Russia-31.4
    44Bulgaria-33.2
    45Thailand-35.2
    46Croatia-36.0
    47Romania-36.3
    48Saudi Arabia-44.3
    49Mexico-46.4
    50Indonesia-70.9

    Connectivity - Dev

    RankCountryScore
    1Ukraine58.4
    2United Kingdom35.0
    3New Zealand33.2
    4Austria31.8
    5Switzerland27.2
    6Finland24.4
    7Hungary21.3
    8Denmark17.3
    9Netherlands17.0
    10South Africa16.6
    11Belgium14.0
    12Sweden11.4
    13Czech Republic9.9
    14Canada5.4
    15Australia5.1
    16Serbia4.6
    17Portugal3.6
    18Greece3.0
    19Bulgaria2.1
    20Germany1.9
    21France0.4
    22Brazil-0.4
    23Israel-6.4
    24United States-9.3
    25Slovenia-9.6
    26India-11.2
    27Slovakia-11.6
    28Romania-15.2
    29Thailand-16.3
    30Ireland-16.6
    31Singapore-19.3
    32Italy-19.4
    33Hong Kong SAR -20.4
    34Taiwan - China-21.5
    35Spain-22.7
    36Malaysia-23.1
    37China-25.0
    38Norway-26.0
    39Japan-30.1
    40Poland-34.2
    41Indonesia-34.6
    42Chile-40.8
    43Korea-44.0
    44Croatia-45.1
    45Russia-49.5
    46Argentina-58.9
    47Saudi Arabia-61.1
    48Mexico-66.3
    49Turkey-72.4
    50Iran-73.9

    Environment - Dev

    RankCountryScore
    1United States26.1
    2Australia20.1
    3New Zealand19.9
    4Singapore16.2
    5Finland15.8
    6Hong Kong SAR 13.8
    7United Kingdom13.7
    8Netherlands12.4
    9Taiwan-China12.1
    10Belgium9.6
    11Switzerland7.4
    12Sweden6.8
    13China5.1
    14Canada5.0
    15Malaysia4.3
    16Poland4.2
    17Norway3.9
    18Ireland3.8
    19Israel3.5
    20Chile1.8
    21Denmark1.6
    22France1.1
    23Austria1.0
    24Japan0.7
    25South Africa-0.7
    26Mexico-1.8
    27Germany-2.0
    28Thailand-2.1
    29Russia-2.2
    30Indonesia-3.0
    31Spain-4.4
    32Czech Republic-4.6
    33Argentina-4.9
    34Romania-5.0
    35Portugal-6.2
    36Slovenia-7.0
    37Ukraine-8.9
    38Italy-9.7
    39Slovakia-13.8
    40Iran-14.4
    41Brazil-17.5
    42Korea-17.6
    43Hungary-18.0
    44Bulgaria-18.6
    45Saudi Arabia-19.5
    46India-19.7
    47Turkey-23.0
    48Croatia-28.3
    49Serbia-31.6
    50Greece-56.3

    Output - Dev

    RankCountryScore
    1Serbia37.5
    2Israel33.8
    3Portugal32.7
    4Greece32.3
    5United Kingdom25.4
    6Denmark18.8
    7Australia17.8
    8Finland17.5
    9South Africa16.2
    10China15.0
    11Sweden13.9
    12Switzerland11.1
    13Canada9.2
    14New Zealand6.4
    15United States4.9
    16Netherlands4.9
    17Belgium2.9
    18Singapore1.2
    19Slovenia-0.9
    20France-1.7
    21Brazil-2.5
    22Iran-3.3
    23Chile-3.8
    24Poland-6.3
    25Spain-8.3
    26Italy-11.5
    27Norway-12.7
    28Korea-13.7
    29Czech Republic-14.2
    30India-16.0
    31Germany-18.2
    32Austria-20.1
    33Malaysia-21.7
    34Ireland-23.7
    35Hong Kong SAR -26.6
    36Argentina-27.2
    37Japan-29.9
    38Russia-33.1
    39Taiwan - China-34.5
    40Turkey-39.0
    41Croatia-42.0
    42Bulgaria-47.6
    43Ukraine-47.9
    44Hungary-52.9
    45Slovakia-56.2
    46Thailand-61.2
    47Romania-63.1
    48Saudi Arabia-81.0
    49Mexico-81.2
    50Indonesia-127.2

    Resources - Dev

    RankCountryScore
    1Serbia39.1
    2Malaysia37.9
    3Ukraine29.1
    4Sweden26.1
    5Finland25.9
    6Canada24.9
    7Denmark22.5
    8Saudi Arabia21.0
    9South Africa19.0
    10Turkey17.7
    11India17.3
    12Austria17.0
    13Brazil14.6
    14Switzerland11.3
    15Portugal8.6
    16Netherlands6.8
    17United States1.5
    18Belgium-0.5
    19China-0.9
    20France-0.9
    21Norway-1.2
    22Israel-1.4
    23Mexico-1.5
    24Greece-2.1
    25New Zealand-3.9
    26Australia-4.4
    27Poland-4.7
    28Korea-5.3
    29Slovakia-5.8
    30United Kingdom-6.0
    31Czech Republic-6.7
    32Singapore-9.3
    33Germany-12.2
    34Hong Kong SAR -13.7
    35Spain-16.5
    36Japan-19.2
    37Iran-19.7
    38Argentina-19.9
    39Chile-21.9
    40Croatia-22.3
    41Slovenia-22.4
    42Italy-29.6
    43Thailand-35.0
    44Romania-35.1
    45Taiwan - China-37.8
    46Russia-39.0
    47Hungary-42.4
    48Ireland-53.7
    49Bulgaria-54.1
    50Indonesia-62.4
  • Year
    2017

    Overall

    RankCountryScore
    1United States100
    2Switzerland86.9
    3United Kingdom85.5
    4Denmark83.5
    5Sweden83.4
    6Singapore80.8
    7Canada80.2
    8Netherlands80.0
    9Finland79.9
    10Australia79.6
    11Austria75.0
    12Belgium74.2
    13Norway73.9
    14Hong Kong SAR 73.7
    15New Zealand72.1
    16Germany68.8
    16Israel68.8
    18France67.5
    19Ireland66.7
    20Japan63.2
    21Taiwan-China60.7
    22Korea59.0
    23Spain57.3
    24Czech Republic56.9
    25Malaysia 56.7
    25Saudi Arabia56.7
    27Portugal55.8
    28Italy54.5
    28Slovenia54.5
    30China52.7
    31Hungary50.8
    32Poland50.0
    33Russia49.9
    34Chile 49.4
    35Greece47.7
    35Ukraine 47.7
    37South Africa46.6
    38Slovakia45.9
    39Serbia44.1
    40Turkey 44.0
    41Argentina43.5
    42Brazil43.1
    43Croatia42.5
    44Romania41.6
    45Bulgaria40.2
    46Mexico40.0
    47Thailand 39.7
    48Iran 38.4
    49India 36.7
    50Indonesia33.3

    Connectivity

    RankCountryScore
    1Switzerland100.0
    2United Kingdom87.0
    3Austria85.6
    4Denmark85.2
    5Netherlands81.9
    6Sweden80.9
    7New Zealand80.6
    8Singapore80.2
    9Belgium78.0
    10Finland76.6
    11Hong Kong SAR 74.3
    12Australia74.2
    13United States73.6
    14Canada73.4
    15Germany66.6
    16Norway66.1
    17Ireland65.7
    18France63.0
    19Israel60.0
    20Hungary57.6
    21Czech Republic56.9
    22Taiwan-China50.5
    23Slovenia50.3
    24Italy50.1
    25Japan49.1
    26Saudi Arabia48.6
    27Spain48.1
    28Portugal47.4
    29Greece44.4
    30Korea44.3
    31South Africa42.2
    32Romania38.9
    33Slovakia38.8
    34Malaysia38.2
    35Thailand38.0
    36Bulgaria38.0
    37Chile36.9
    38Ukraine36.0
    39Serbia35.5
    40Croatia34.6
    41Indonesia30.8
    42Mexico30.6
    43Argentina30.2
    44Russia30.1
    45China29.0
    46Poland28.4
    47Turkey25.6
    48Brazil24.6
    49India22.8
    50Iran22.6

    Environment

    RankCountryScore
    1United States100.0
    2New Zealand95.9
    3Australia95.7
    4Singapore93.1
    5United Kingdom91.7
    6Hong Kong SAR 91.5
    7Belgium90.8
    8Finland90.7
    9Netherlands88.7
    10Taiwan-China88.5
    11Ireland87.8
    12Switzerland86.1
    13Malaysia85.5
    14Sweden84.0
    15Chile83.8
    16Norway83.2
    17Poland82.5
    18Israel82.3
    19China82.0
    20Canada82.0
    21Denmark81.2
    22Japan81.1
    23France80.9
    24Germany80.3
    25Mexico79.7
    26Thailand78.8
    27Austria78.7
    28South Africa78.5
    29Russia78.0
    30Romania77.9
    31Argentina77.8
    32Indonesia77.1
    33Czech Republic76.5
    34Spain76.2
    35Slovenia74.6
    36Portugal74.6
    37Ukraine72.8
    38Italy72.6
    39Hungary72.6
    40Slovakia71.4
    41Iran68.5
    42Brazil68.0
    43Korea67.5
    44Croatia67.4
    45Bulgaria67.1
    46Serbia66.1
    47Turkey65.9
    48Saudi Arabia65.3
    49India65.3
    50Greece48.3

    Output

    RankCountryScore
    1United States100.0
    2United Kingdom69.0
    3Australia64.0
    4Denmark62.4
    5Sweden62.1
    6Switzerland61.9
    7Canada61.2
    8Netherlands60.0
    9Finland57.1
    10Israel56.0
    11Norway54.2
    12Singapore53.9
    13Germany53.8
    14Belgium53.2
    15Japan51.3
    16France51.0
    17Ireland49.6
    18Korea49.2
    19New Zealand48.5
    20Austria48.0
    21China47.8
    22Hong Kong SAR 46.3
    23Spain44.6
    24Taiwan-China44.1
    25Italy42.7
    26Russia40.4
    27Portugal39.9
    28Slovenia39.5
    29Greece38.5
    30Czech Republic36.8
    31Poland34.9
    32Hungary31.2
    33Saudi Arabia30.7
    34Croatia29.3
    35Slovakia29.2
    36Argentina28.0
    37Brazil27.9
    38South Africa27.2
    39Malaysia27.2
    40Iran26.8
    41Chile26.6
    42Bulgaria26.5
    43Serbia25.7
    44Turkey25.5
    45Ukraine23.5
    46Romania21.3
    47Thailand19.4
    48India19.2
    49Mexico18.1
    50Indonesia13.6

    Resources

    RankCountryScore
    1Sweden100.0
    2Denmark98.2
    3Canada96.3
    4Singapore95.8
    5Switzerland95.2
    6United States92.8
    7Finland91.1
    8Austria89.4
    9Saudi Arabia89.1
    10Norway87.0
    11Malaysia 86.3
    12Hong Kong SAR 85.2
    13Netherlands82.6
    14United Kingdom81.7
    15Australia73.2
    16Belgium71.0
    17France68.8
    18Ukraine 66.9
    19Israel66.3
    20Germany66.0
    21Korea65.0
    22Turkey 62.9
    23New Zealand62.7
    24Japan61.7
    25Ireland58.7
    26Portugal58.5
    27Czech Republic58.5
    28Chile 56.5
    29Taiwan-China55.9
    30Spain53.7
    31Serbia53.0
    32Greece52.8
    33Brazil52.6
    34Poland52.6
    35Slovenia50.0
    36Italy46.0
    37Slovakia45.3
    38India 44.6
    39Hungary44.2
    40Russia43.8
    41South Africa42.0
    42Mexico40.0
    43China39.3
    44Argentina38.8
    45Croatia37.7
    46Romania34.4
    47Iran 34.3
    48Thailand 29.5
    49Bulgaria29.4
    50Indonesia20.4

    Descriptions

    CountryDescription
    ArgentinaIn 2017 Argentina ranks 41st overall, which combines ranks of 44 in Resources, 31 in Environment, 43 in Connectivity and 36 in Output. The Output ranking has risen from 41st last year, but this has only improved it to the rank recorded five years ago. In the Resources category, the level of government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked at 23 but total expenditure per student is ranked much lower at 48. The difference is explained by the high enrolment rate, ranked at 15. Among the Connectivity variables, the best ranking (29th) is for articles written jointly between academics and international collaborators and the worst rank is (46th) for articles written jointly with researchers from industry. Published articles per head are ranked at 43 and their average impact is ranked at 37. When the rankings are adjusted for differences in GDP per capita Argentina falls in the overall ranking to 42nd, which includes a fall in the Connectivity rank to 49th; its overall score is below that expected for its level of income.
    AustraliaIn 2017 Australia ranks 10th overall, which combines ranks of 15 for Resources, 3 for Environment, 12 for Connectivity and 3 for Output. The ranking for Output is four places higher than it was five years ago. The ranking for Resources is pulled down by the low ranking (44th) for government expenditure on higher education, although the official data do not reflect the full cost of the student loans scheme. Private expenditure exceeds government expenditure so that total expenditure is ranked 17th and expenditure per student 10th. R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions as a share of GDP is ranked seventh. In the Connectivity measures, Australia ranks third on international student numbers but performs less well for connectivity with industry: ranked 21st by business for knowledge transfer and 27th for joint publications with industry. Australia is ranked first on publications per head but is twelfth on their average impact. It ranks eighth for participation rates and tenth for the (tertiary) educational qualifications of the labour force. The unemployment rate for those with tertiary qualifications compared with those whose highest qualification is final year of schooling or non-tertiary post school is around the median value for our 50 countries. Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 18th for numeracy and literacy. Australia is again ranked 10th when levels of GDP per capita are taken into account and the score is above that expected at its income level.
    Austrian2017 Austria ranks 11th overall, which combines ranks of 8 for Resources, 27 for the Environment, 3 for Connectivity and 20 for Output. In Connectivity it ranks in the top six for three of the components: the share of international students, articles co-authored with international researchers and articles co-authored with industry researchers. Austria ranks fourth for government expenditures and twelfth for total expenditure as a share of GDP and is in the top six countries for R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions. Within Output, the highest rank is for the number of national researchers per head of population (tenth). Austria ranks 16th on published articles per head of population and 13th on their impact. Austrian tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked third on numeracy and literacy. When the rankings are adjusted for levels of GDP per capita, Austria’s ranking falls to 18th overall, but its score is what is expected at its income level.
    BelgiumIn 2017 Belgium ranks 12th overall, which combines ranks of 16 for Resources, 7 for Environment, 9 for Connectivity and 14 for Output. The Output ranking is two places higher than it was five year’s ago. Total expenditure as a share of GDP is ranked 28th but government expenditure is ranked tenth and expenditure per student is ranked 19th. The high rank for Environment is due in part to the country being ranked fourth by the WEF business survey. Within the Connectivity module, Belgium is ranked fourth for the proportion of articles co-authored with international collaborators. It has good links with industry: ranked seventh for joint publications and 13th for knowledge transfer. In Output, Belgium is ranked 14th for publications per head and tenth for their impact. Tertiary enrolled students and recent graduates are ranked fifth for numeracy and literacy. The enrollment rate is ranked 20th. Belgium’s overall ranking falls to 16th when performance is adjusted for levels of GDP per capita but its score is above that expected for a country at its level of income.
    BrazilIn 2017 Brazil ranks 42nd overall, which combines ranks of 33 for Resources, 42 for Environment, 48 for Connectivity and 37 for Output. The absence of official data on private expenditure and R&D expenditure means that the ranking for Resources is only an approximation. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 34th. In the Output module Brazil is 11th on total publications but only 40th on publications per head and 47th for the average impact of papers. The country ranks 26th for the quality of its best three universities but is in the bottom decile for participation rate and the qualification of its workforce. Collaboration with international researchers and with local business are ranked in the bottom quintile. When the country standings are adjusted for levels of GDP per capita, Brazil rises to 28th in the rankings but its score is a little below that expected at its income level.
    BulgariaIn 2017 Bulgaria ranks 45th overall, three ranks higher than last year. The overall ranking combines ranks of 49 for Resources, 45 for Environment, 36 for Connectivity and 42 for Output. The Output rank has fallen five places since 2013. Bulgaria ranks 50th for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP and 44th for total expenditure. Bulgaria is ranked fifth for employment of those with a tertiary qualification relative to school leavers. Enrolment rates and the educational attainments of its workforce are around median levels. The absence of a university in the Shanghai top 500 lowers the rank for Output. Joint publications with international authors have increased to now rank 26th and joint publications with industry are ranked 31st. But business ranks knowledge transfer with them at a low 45th. When account is taken of the level of GDP per capita in each country, Bulgaria is ranked 49th and its score is well below the expected level.
    CanadaIn 2017 Canada is ranked 7th overall, a rise of two places from last year. The overall result combines ranks of 3 for Resources, 20 for Environment, 14 for Connectivity and 7 for Output. The rank for Environment has improved from previous years because the revised measure gives more weight to the numbers enrolled in non-university tertiary education. In Resources, Canada ranks second for total expenditure as a share of GDP and seventh for expenditure per student. In the Output category, Canada is ranked ninth for total publications and tenth for publications deflated by population. Its best three universities are ranked equal fourth. Canada is ranked first for the formal educational qualifications of its workforce but its tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 17th for literacy and numeracy. In Connectivity, Canada ranks third for web impact and 18th for joint publications with international authors. Engagement with industry is above average: ranked 14th for knowledge transfer and 16th for joint publications. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Canada ranks eleventh overall and the score is above that expected at its income level.
    ChileIn 2017 Chile ranks 34th overall, which combines ranks of 28 for Resources, 15 for Environment, and 37 for Connectivity and 41st for Output. In the Resources category, government expenditure on tertiary education as a share of GDP has risen 20 places to 27th but this has substituted for private expenditure such that total expenditure has fallen three places to fifth. In the Connectivity category, Chile ranks tenth on the share of articles co-authored with international collaborators. There is less connectivity with industry: ranked 41st for co-authored articles and 36th for knowledge transfer. In Output, Chile does best on tertiary enrolment rates (seventh) but is ranked only 39th on the (tertiary) educational qualifications of its workforce. The literacy and numeracy skills of its tertiary students and recent graduates rank 29th. Chile ranks 36th for published articles per head of population. When levels of GDP per capita are allowed for, Chile ranks 36th overall and its score is below that expected at its income level.
    ChinaIn 2017 China ranks 30th overall, which combines ranks of 43 for Resources, 19 for Environment, 45 for Connectivity and 21 for Output. In the Resources category, total expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 34th. Within the Connectivity category, knowledge transfer to industry is ranked 26th, the share of articles co-authored with industry is ranked 37th, but the proportion of articles written with international collaborators is the second lowest of all countries at 18%. Web impact is above average. In Output, China is ranked second on total publications but 42nd when population is allowed for. China has improved five ranks in Output over the last five years. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, China’s overall rank improves to 14th and its score is above that expected at its income level; it is ranked fourth for Output.
    CroatiaIn 2017 Croatia ranks 43rd overall, which combines ranks of 45 for Resources, 44 for Environment, 40 for Connectivity and 34 for Output. The Output rank is four above that for 2013. Public expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 36th and total expenditure 34th. The highest ranked component in Connectivity is the share of research papers co-authored with industry (23rd) but business ranks knowledge transfer at 46. The Output category includes a rank of 30 for publications per head and their average impact is ranked at 35. The depth of quality in its universities and enrolment rates are at median levels. Croatia scores well (rank 14) for employment of those with a tertiary qualification compared with school leavers. The absence of a university in the Shanghai top 500 lowers the Output score. Croatia’s overall rank is 31 when allowance is made for income differences across countries and its overall score is less than expected at its level of income. It does best in Output where it is above expected value and is ranked 12th.
    Czech RepublicIn 2017 The Czech Republic ranks 24th overall, which combines ranks of 27 for Resources, 33 for Environment, 21 for Connectivity and 30 for Output. Expenditure (both public and private) as a share of GDP is ranked 33rd and research expenditure 14th. The Czech Republic is ranked 21st for joint publications with industry but business views on knowledge transfer give a much lower rank of 37. Most of the Output variables yield values around median levels, except that the country performs very well on the criterion of unemployment levels for those with a tertiary qualification compared with school leavers (ranked sixth). Publications adjusted for population and their impact are both ranked 24th. The Output rank has remained remarkably stable over five years of ranking. The literacy and numeracy scores of its students and recent graduates are ranked tenth. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account the Czech Republic is ranked 21st and its score is about that expected at its level of income.
    DenmarkIn 2017 Denmark is ranked fourth overall, which combines ranks of 2 for Resources, 21 for Environment, 4 for Connectivity and 4 for Output. Within the Resources category, it is ranked fifth for government expenditure as a share of GDP and 13th for total expenditure (public plus private) per student. Denmark is ranked first for spending on research and development by tertiary institutions (as a share of GDP) and second for the number of national researchers per head of population. In the Connectivity module, Denmark is ranked in the top ten for all variables and first for joint publications with industry. It ranks ninth for international students. In Output it is ranked third for publications per head of population and second for their average impact. Denmark is ranked third for the overall quality of its universities. The Output rank has improved four places over the last five years. The literacy and numeracy scores of its students and recent graduates are ranked ninth. Denmark maintains its overall ranking of fourth when adjustment is made for different levels of GDP per capita. Its score is well above that expected at its level of income.
    FinlandIn 2017 Finland ranks ninth overall, which combines ranks of 7 for Resources, 8 for Environment, 10 for Connectivity and 9 for Output. It ranks third in government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP but 13th on total expenditure (public plus private) per student. It ranks fifth for research expenditure by tertiary institutions and second in the number of national researchers per head of population. In Output, Finland is fourth on publications per head and 9th on their average impact. Enrolment rates are ranked fourth. Finland has fallen four places in Output over the last five years. In Connectivity, Finland is ranked fourth for Web transparency; seventh for knowledge transfer with business; and 12th for both joint publications with industry and with international authors. Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked first for literacy and numeracy. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account Finland’s overall ranking is unchanged at sixth and its score is well above what is expected given its level of income.
    FranceIn 2017 France ranks 18th overall, which combines ranks of 17 in Resources, 23 in Environment, 18 in Connectivity, and 16 in Output. Within the Resources category it is ranked 19th for government expenditure as a share of GDP and 18th for total expenditure per student. (Private expenditure is about 20 per cent of total expenditure.) In Connectivity, France ranks eighth for joint publications with industry and 16th for joint publications with international authors. The rank for Connectivity is pulled down by the web connectivity variables: ranked 31st for web impact. France ranks 11th for international students. In the Output module France is ranked eighth for the standing of its best three universities. The total number of publications by the country’s universities is ranked sixth, but this falls to 23rd when adjusted for population. The average impact of publications is ranked 19th. French tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 12th for numeracy and literacy. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, France’s overall rank is 24 and its score is around the level expected at its level of income.
    GermanyIn 2017 Germany is ranked equal 16th overall, which combines ranks of 20 for Resources, 24 for Environment, 15 for Connectivity and 13 for Output. In the Resources category it ranks 39th on total expenditure (public plus private) as a share of GDP but 14th on expenditure per student. The difference is explained by the relative low rank (31st) for the participation rate in higher education. In Connectivity Germany performs well on links with industry: ranked ninth for joint publications and 12th for knowledge transfer. It ranks 19th for the share of publications that have international co-authors. In Output, German universities are ranked fifth for total publications, 26th for publications deflated by population and 14th for the average impact of publications. The country ranks seventh on the standing of its best three universities. The Output rank has fallen four places over the last five years. The Environment score is pulled down in part because the points awarded for national policy disadvantages some federations. German tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked sixth for numeracy and literacy. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account Germany’s overall ranking falls to 30th and its score is a little below what is expected given its level of income.
    GreeceIn 2017 Greece is ranked equal 35th overall, which combines ranks of 32 for Resources, 50 for Environment, 29 for Connectivity and 29 for Output. It ranks 11th for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP but 42nd for expenditure per student. This difference is explained by the high recorded participation rate in tertiary education, ranked first. In Connectivity, Greece is ranked 23rd for publications with international researchers and 26th for publications with industry, but business ranks the higher education sector at only 41st for knowledge transfer. Web connectivity is around median levels. Other than for the participation rate, the rankings for all the Output measures lie around median values: ranging from a rank of 22 for the average impact of research articles to 32nd for the quality of its best three universities. Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 25th for numeracy and literacy. Greece obtains the lowest score of all countries for the Environment owing to the very limited independence given to institutions and a low score given by business. When account is taken of levels of per capita GDP, Greece’s overall ranking improves to 23rd and is about the level expected at its level of income.
    Hong Kong SARIn 2017 Hong Kong SAR is ranked 14th overall, which combines ranks of 12 for Resources, 6 for Environment, 11 for Connectivity and 22 for Output. The Environment score is high reflecting a system that gives significant autonomy to institutions while maintaining overall surveillance. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 14th, total expenditure tenth, and expenditure per student third. In Connectivity, Hong Kong SAR is ranked second in articles co-authored with international collaborators. The higher education sector is ranked 11th for business satisfaction with the extent of knowledge transfer but is ranked lower at 32nd for articles written with industry. Web-based connectivity is ranked in the top 10. In the Output category, Hong Kong SAR is ranked 12th on publications per head and 15th on the impact of articles. When account is taken of levels of GDP per capita Hong Kong’s ranking falls to 26th and its score is a about that expected at its income level.
    HungaryIn 2017 Hungary is ranked 31st overall, which combines ranks of 39 for Resources, 39 for Environment, 20 for Connectivity and 32 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP ranks 39th and total expenditure per student ranks 33rd. The Connectivity ranking includes a ranking of sixth in joint publications with industry and 25th in joint publications with international authors. Within the Output category, Hungary is ranked first for employment of the tertiary educated workforce compared with those who left after completing final year of schooling. It is ranked 34th on publications per head and 30th on their impact. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Hungary’s ranking is 41st and its score is below that expected at its income level. The adjusted rank has fallen from last year owing largely to Hungarian universities falling out of the Shanghai rankings.
    IndiaIn 2017 India is ranked 49th overall, which combines ranks of 38 for Resources, 49 for Environment, 49 for Connectivity and 48 for Output. It is ranked 17th for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP but 47th for expenditure on research by tertiary institutions. Within the Connectivity category, India ranks well down for joint publications: both with international authors (50th) and with industry (45th). It is scored higher by business on knowledge transfer (31st). It rates lowly for web connectivity of institutions. Within the Output category, India ranks 12th on total publications but 49th on publications per head. The average impact of articles is ranked at 45. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, India’s overall ranking rises 17th owing to large increases in the ranking for Resources (ninth) and Output (21st). India’s GDP-adjusted overall score is a little above the level expected at its income level.
    IndonesiaIn 2017 Indonesia is ranked 50th overall, which combines ranks of 50 for Resources, 32 for Environment, 41 for Connectivity and 50 for Output. It is ranked 49th for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP. In Connectivity, Indonesia ranks, 33rd for joint publications with industry, 39th for joint publications with international authors and 40th for knowledge transfer with business. There has been a notable decline in most of the connectivity scores from last year’s ranking. Indonesia ranks in the bottom quintile for all Output measures (except employment rates of the tertiary educated compared with school leavers) and loses points for not having a university in the Shanghai top 500. When allowance is made for levels of per capita GDP, Indonesia’s overall ranking remains at 50 and the score is well below that expected at its income level.
    IranIn 2017 Iran is ranked 48th overall, which combines ranks of 47 for Resources, 41 for Environment, 50 for Connectivity and 40 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 43rd and research expenditure by institutions is ranked 35th. Among the Connectivity measures Iran ranks 48th for joint publications both with international collaborators and with industry. Web-based impact is ranked 40th. The number of articles published by Iranian authors is ranked 16th, but this falls to 35th when population differences are allowed for; the average impact of articles is ranked 43rd. Iran ranks 29th for enrolment rates and 37th for the (tertiary) educational qualifications of its workforce. When account is taken of levels of GDP per capita, the rank for Output improves to 24th, and is about the level expected at Iran’s level of income. However, the improvement in the overall rank is less dramatic (to 40th) and the score is below that expected.
    IrelandIn 2017 Ireland is ranked 19th overall, which combines ranks of 25 for Resources, 11 for Environment, 17 for Connectivity and 17 for Output. Heavy dependence on government funds shows up in a rank of 20th for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP but 40th for total expenditure. Expenditure per student is ranked 22nd. In Connectivity, Irish institutions perform relatively best in joint publications with international collaborators (ranked 9th). In links with business, Ireland is ranked 18th on both joint publications and knowledge transfer. In Output, Ireland is ranked 16th on both publications by tertiary institutions (per head of population) and their average impact. It ranks 11th for the educational levels of its workforce and seventh for employment of those with a tertiary qualification compared with school leavers. Irish tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 22nd for numeracy and literacy. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita Ireland’s ranking is 33rd, which is below the level expected at its income level.
    IsraelIn 2017 Israel is ranked 16th overall, which combines ranks of 19 for Resources, 18 for Environment, 19 for Connectivity and 10 for Output. The rank for Environment has risen due to the widened definition of diversity of institutions and an improvement in rating by business. Israel ranks 33rd for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP, which improves to 18th when private expenditure is added. Expenditure per student is ranked 20th. Emphasis is placed on research. Expenditure in tertiary institutions on R&D as a percentage of GDP is ranked 13th; Israel is ranked first for the number of researchers in the country per head of population. Research output per head of population is ranked 19th and the average impact of articles is ranked 18th. Israel is ranked third for knowledge transfer and 22nd for joint articles with industry. Web impact is ranked 23rd. Israel is ranked fifth for the educational qualifications of its workforce. Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 27th for literacy and numeracy. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Israel’s ranking improves to ninth. Its score is above that expected at its income level.
    ItalyIn 2017 Italy is ranked equal 28th overall, which combines ranks of 36 for Resources, 38 for Environment, 24 for Connectivity and 25 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education (75 per cent of total expenditure) as a share of GDP is ranked 41st and R&D expenditure by institutions 28th. Expenditure per student is ranked 27th. In Connectivity, joint publications of academics with industry are ranked 19th and joint publications with international authors 28th. Knowledge transfer with firms is ranked 28th. In the Output category, Italy publishes the seventh largest number of journal articles but this rank falls to 21st when deflated by population size; the average impact of articles is ranked eighth. The three best performing universities are ranked 21st. Italy ranks 43rd on the education qualifications of its workforce and 33rd on number of researchers per head of population. Tertiary students and recent graduates rank 26th in numeracy and literacy. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Italy’s ranking falls to 35th and its score is below that expected at its income level.
    JapanIn 2017 Japan is ranked 20th overall, which combines ranks of 24 for Resources, 22 for Environment, 25 for Connectivity and 15 for Output. Total expenditure on higher education (of which two-thirds is private) as a share of GDP is ranked 23rd but, because the participation rate is a little below average, expenditure per student is ranked 12th. R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions is ranked 18th. Connectivity is predominantly internal: the percentage of articles co-authored with international researchers is ranked a lowly 45th. In contrast, Japan ranks fifth for the percentage of articles written jointly with industry collaborators, and knowledge transfer with domestic business is ranked 24th. In Output, Japan ranks fourth on total articles published but 22nd when population size is allowed for. The average impact of articles is ranked at 32. Japan ranks third on the quality of its best three universities and on the educational qualifications of its workforce. It ranks ninth for the number of researchers in the country. Japanese tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked seventh for literacy and numeracy. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Japan’s rank falls to 36 and is below the level expected at its income level.
    KoreaIn 2017 Korea is ranked 22nd overall, which combines ranks of 21 for Resources, 43 for Environment, 30 for Connectivity and 18 for Output. Total expenditure on higher education (of which 60 per cent is private) as a share of GDP ranks seventh but expenditure per student ranks much lower at 34th because Korea has the second highest participation rate. Research expenditure by institutions is ranked 24th. The rank for Environment is pulled down by the relatively low proportion of students and staff who are female. Korean links with industry are ranked 11th for joint publications but 27th for knowledge transfer. Joint publications with international authors are ranked 44th. In the Output category, Korea ranks tenth on total publications but 22nd when adjusted for population size. The average impact of publications is ranked at 33. Korea ranks sixth on the education qualifications of its workforce, and fourth on total researchers in the nation (adjusted for population). Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 15th for numeracy and literacy. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Korea’s overall rank falls to 34 and is a little below that expected at its income level.
    MalaysiaIn 2017 Malaysia is ranked 25th overall, which combines ranks of 11 for Resources, 13 for Environment, 34 for Connectivity and 39 for Output. Malaysia is ranked eighth for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP and expenditure per student ranks eleventh. Expenditure on R&D in tertiary institutions as a share of GDP ranks 11th. In Connectivity, Malaysia is ranked 16th for knowledge transfer with business, but joint publications with industry and with international collaborators are ranked much lower at 50th and 38th, respectively. Malaysian institutions are ranked 20th for total publications and 31st for publications per head of population. The country is ranked 36th for the educational attainment of the workforce and 31st for the number of researchers in the nation (adjusted for population). Over the last five years Malaysia has risen seven places in Output, the second highest improvement of any country. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Malaysia’s overall ranking improves to 19th and the estimated overall score is around the level expected at Malaysia’s income level.
    MexicoIn 2017 Mexico is ranked 46th overall, which combines ranks of 42 for Resources, 25 for Environment, 42 for Connectivity and 49 for Output. It ranks 35th for government expenditure on higher education (which is around 70 per cent of total expenditure) as a share of GDP and 41st for expenditure on research and development. In Connectivity, Mexico ranks 47th for joint publications with industry and 25th for knowledge transfer (14th if allowance is made for national income levels). Joint publications with international authors are ranked 32nd. Web connectivity is below average. In Output, Mexico is ranked 30th for total publications but 47th when adjusted for population. Tertiary enrolment rates are ranked 48th. When account is taken of levels of GDP per capita Mexico’s overall rank is 48 and the overall score is well below that expected at Mexico’s level of income.
    NetherlandsIn 2017 The Netherlands is ranked eighth overall, which combines ranks of 13 for Resources, 9 for Environment, 5 for Connectivity and 8 for Output. It is ranked 18th for total expenditure on higher education (which is 70 per cent government funded) as a share of GDP and ninth for expenditure per student. It ranks in the top ten countries for R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions. It ranks highly for Connectivity with business: fourth for both joint publications and knowledge transfer. Joint publications with international authors are ranked 14th and web connectivity is above average. In Output, the Netherlands performs strongly in research publications per head (sixth) and their average impact (third). The participation rate is ranked 18th, and the education qualifications of the workforce 19th. The standing of its universities is high: ranked fifth for depth and 12th for its best three universities. Output has exhibited a steady upward trend over the past five years. The literacy and numeracy skills of tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked second. When account is taken of levels of GDP per capita the overall rank is 13. The scores for each of the four broad categories and overall are above those expected at the Netherland’s income levels.
    New ZealandIn 2017 New Zealand is ranked equal 15th overall, which combines ranks of 23 for Resources, 2 for Environment, 7 for Connectivity and 19 for Output. In expenditure as a share of GDP, New Zealand is ranked 30th for government expenditure, 11th for total expenditure and 25th for research expenditure. In Connectivity, New Zealand’s highest score is for the percentage of students who are international, where it is ranked second. For joint research it is ranked 11th for publications with international researchers and 25th for publications with industry. The rank for business views on knowledge transfer is tenth. In the Output category New Zealand is ranked 11th on publications per head and 21st on their average impact. Its tertiary enrolment rate is ranked 13th and the tertiary educational qualifications of its workforce is ranked 21st. The literacy and numeracy skills of tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 16th. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, New Zealand’s rank improves to seventh and its score is above the level expected at its income level.
    NorwayIn 2017 Norway is ranked 13th overall, which combines ranks of 10 for Resources, 16 for Environment, 16 for Connectivity and 11 for Output. In expenditure as a share of GDP, Norway is ranked 6th for government expenditure (95 per cent of expenditure is public), 20th for total expenditure and 12th for research expenditure. Expenditure per student is ranked eighth. In Connectivity, co-authorship with international collaborators is ranked 13th and with industry 17th. Web connectivity is ranked seventh. In the Output variables, Norway scores highest for the average quality of its universities (seventh), number of national researchers (eighth) and research publications (ninth), each adjusted for population. The average impact of publications is ranked 11th. Norway is ranked 19th for participation rates in higher education and 13th for the tertiary educational qualifications of the workforce. The literacy and numeracy skills of tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked eighth. Norway’s overall rank falls to 29th when account is taken of levels of GDP per head and the overall score is a little below that expected at its high income level.
    PolandIn 2017 Poland is ranked 32nd overall, which combines ranks of 34 for Resources, 17 for Environment, 46 for Connectivity and 31 for Output. In expenditure as a share of GDP, Poland is ranked 16th for government expenditure, 32nd for total expenditure and 32nd for research expenditure. Connectivity with industry is below average: Poland ranks 38th in joint articles with industry and 47th in knowledge transfer with business. In joint articles with international collaborators Poland is ranked 42nd. Web connectivity is a little below the median. In Output, Poland is ranked 19th on published articles but this falls to 32nd when adjusted for population. The average impact of articles is ranked at 28. Participation rates are ranked 22nd and the tertiary educational qualifications of the workforce 27th. Poland performs well (fourth) on the employment rates of those with a tertiary qualification compared with those who only completed final year of schooling. Tertiary students and recent graduates are rank 14th for literacy and numeracy. Poland’s rank remains at 32 when account is taken of levels of GDP per capita and its score is below that expected at its income level.
    PortugalIn 2017 Portugal is ranked 27th overall, which combines ranks of 26 for Resources, 36 for Environment, 28 for Connectivity and 27 for Output. In expenditure as a share of GDP, Portugal is ranked 37th for government expenditure, 31st for total expenditure, but 10th for research expenditure. Under the heading of Connectivity, Portugal is ranked 20th for joint publications with international researchers and 36th for publications with industry. Knowledge transfer with business is ranked 22nd. In the Output module, publications per head are ranked 15th. The tertiary educational qualifications of the workforce are ranked 32nd and the tertiary enrolment rate is ranked 30th. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Portugal’s ranking jumps to eighth (second on Output) and its score is above that expected at its level of income.
    RomaniaIn 2017 Romania is ranked 44th overall, which combines ranks of 46 for Resources, 30 for Environment, 32 for Connectivity and 46 for Output. Total expenditure as a share of GDP is ranked 42nd and research expenditure 45th. The Environment measure benefits from institutions having a relatively high percentage of female staff (ranked seventh). In the Connectivity measures, knowledge transfer with business is ranked 20th, higher than joint publications (ranked 39th). Joint articles with international collaborators is ranked 41st. The absence of a university in the top 500 lowers the Output score. Romania is ranked 37th on research articles per head and 42nd on their average impact. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita Romania is ranked 46th and its score is well below that expected at its level of income.
    RussiaIn 2017 Russia is ranked 33rd overall, which combines ranks of 40 for Resources, 29 for Environment, 44 for Connectivity and 26 for Output. In expenditure as a share of GDP, Russia is ranked 32nd for government expenditure as a share of GDP, 32nd for total expenditure and 43rd for research expenditure. In the Connectivity module, Russia is relatively weak on interactions with industry: it is ranked 43rd on joint publications with industry and 39th for knowledge transfer with firms. It ranks 35th for joint publications with international researchers. In the Output module, the Russia is ranked second for the educational qualifications of its workforce and eighth for the employment rates of those with a tertiary qualification compared with school leavers. Total research publications rank 21st, publications per head 45th and their average impact 31st. Over the last five years Russia has improved six places on Output, the (equal) third largest increase. Students and recent graduates are ranked 24th for literacy and numeracy. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita the rank is 43 and the GDP adjusted score for Russia is well below that expected at its income level.
    Saudi ArabiaIn 2017 Saudi Arabia is ranked equal 25th overall, which combines ranks of 9 for Resources, 48 for Environment, 26 for Connectivity and 33 for Output. It is ranked first for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP. In the Connectivity module, Saudi Arabia is ranked first for the share of publications that have an international collaborator but it is ranked only 40th for joint publications with industry. Web connectivity is in the lowest quintile. The highest score in the Output module is for the quality of its best three universities where it is ranked 16th. It is ranked 39th for publications per head and 20th for their average impact. High government expenditure is now showing up in the Output rank that has improved 12 places over the last five years, the largest improvement for any country. However, Saudi Arabia’s high level of GDP per capita inevitably means that its ranking falls (to 47th) when income levels are allowed for. The GDP adjusted score for Saudi Arabia is well below that expected at its income level.
    SerbiaIn 2017 Serbia is ranked 39th overall, which combines ranks of 31 for Resources, 46 for Environment, 39 for Connectivity and 43 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 15th and expenditure by institutions on R&D is ranked 24th. Serbia ranks 42nd on joint publications with industry and 31st on joint publications with international authors. In the Output module, Serbia ranks 33rd in publications per head and 39th in their average impact. It ranks 29th for the average quality of its universities. The tertiary education qualifications of the work force are ranked 41st and the enrolment rate 37th. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita Serbia’s rank jumps to first place and the score is well above that expected for its level of income.
    SingaporeIn 2017 Singapore is ranked sixth overall, which combines ranks of 4 for Resources, 4 for Environment, 8 for Connectivity and 12 for Output. It ranks 25th for government expenditure on tertiary education as a share of GDP, but first for both total expenditure per student and R&D expenditure by universities per head of population. In the Connectivity category, it ranks first for the relative importance of international students. It ranks fifth for the relative importance of joint publications with international authors, 30th for joint publications with industry and eighth for the degree of knowledge transfer with firms. Web impact is high. Singapore is ranked seventh for publications per head of population and their average impact is ranked fifth. The (tertiary) educational qualifications of the workforce is ranked fourth and the number of national researchers per head of population is ranked sixth. Singapore has risen six ranks in Output over the last five years, the (equal) third largest improvement among our 50 countries. Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 11th for literacy and numeracy. When allowance is made for national levels of GDP per head Singapore’s ranking falls to 20th but the score is around what is expected at its income levels.
    SlovakiaIn 2017 Slovakia is ranked 38th overall, which combines ranks of 37 for Resources, 40 for Environment, 33 for Connectivity and 35 for Output. Total expenditure on higher education (of which nearly 80 per cent is by government) as a share of GDP is ranked 46th; government expenditure at 38th. Slovakia is ranked 31st for R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions. Within the Connectivity module, Slovakia is ranked 36th for joint publications with international researchers, 34th for joint publications with industry and 42nd for knowledge transfer with firms. The Output score is lowered by the absence of any university in the Shanghai top 500. Publications per head are ranked at 29 and their average impact at 27. Slovakia ranks highly at twelfth for the employment rate of those with a tertiary qualification compared with school leavers. Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 13th for literacy and numeracy. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Slovakia’s rank falls to 44 and its score is well below that expected at its income level.
    SloveniaIn 2017 Slovenia is ranked 28th overall, which combines ranks of 35 for Resources, 35 for Environment, 23 for Connectivity and 28 for Output. It is ranked around the median level for many of the indicators. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 26th but because private expenditure is low (12 per cent) total expenditure is ranked 41st. In the Connectivity module, joint papers with industry are ranked 14th and with international collaborators 27th, but knowledge transfer with firms rates poorly at 42nd. Slovenia has slipped four places in the Output ranking over the last five years. It is ranked 18th for publications per head and 26th for their average impact. The highest ranking among the Output variables occurs for participation rates in higher education where Slovenia is ranked tenth. It is ranked 15th for the number of researchers in the nation per head of population. Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 19th in literacy and numeracy skills. When allowance is made for levels of GDP per capita, Slovenia is ranked 25th and the score is around that expected at its income level.
    South AfricaIn 2017 South Africa is ranked 37th overall, which combines ranks of 41 for resources, 28 for Environment, 31 for Connectivity and 38 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 46th and research expenditure 34th. The Environment rank is dragged down by a very low score on the World Economic Forum rating by business (ranked 50th) and its rank of 44 for data quality. In Connectivity, South Africa is 21st for joint publications with international researchers, 29th for joint publications with industry and 34th for knowledge transfer with firms. But web-based connectivity is in the bottom decile. South Africa’s rank in the Output module has improved six place over the last five years, the (equal) third largest improvement among our 50 countries. The tertiary education sector is ranked 41st for publications per head but 29th for their average impact. Both enrolment rates and the educational qualifications of the workforce are in the bottom decile. When allowance is made for differences in GDP per head, South Africa’s rank jumps to third (first for Connectivity) and the score is well above that expected at its level of income.
    SpainIn 2017 Spain is ranked 23rd overall, which combines ranks of 30 for Resources, 34 for Environment, 27 for Connectivity and 23 for Output. As a share of GDP, Spain is ranked 31st for government expenditure (about 70 per cent of total expenditure), 36th for total expenditure and 27th for research expenditure in higher education. In engagement with the private sector, Spain ranks 20th for joint publications with industry and 35th for knowledge transfer. Joint publications with international collaborators are ranked 24th. Spain’s tertiary institutions are ranked 20th for web connectivity. In Output, Spain is ranked 13th for total publications and 25th on a per capita basis. The average impact of published articles is ranked 23rd. The participation rate in tertiary education is ranked third which is much higher than the educational qualifications of the workforce (ranked 20th). Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 23rd for literacy and numeracy skills. When allowance is made for differences in GDP per head, Spain’s rank is 27 and its score is around that expected at its level of income.
    SwedenIn 2017 Sweden is ranked fifth overall, which combines ranks of 1 for Resources, 14 for Environment, 6 for Connectivity and 5 for Output. In Resources as a share of GDP, Sweden is ranked seventh for government expenditure (about 90 per cent of total expenditure), 15th for total expenditure and second for research expenditure. Expenditure per student is ranked sixth. Sweden’s lowest rank is for Environment which owes to its score for institutional autonomy being only around median values. Sweden performs well in engagement with industry: ranks third for joint publications and sixth for knowledge transfer. It ranks eighth for joint publications with international researchers and is in the top ten for web connectivity. In Output, Sweden is ranked second for publications per head and seventh for their average impact. Its university sector is ranked second for average quality. It is ranked 15th for the educational qualifications of its workforce and fifth for the number of researchers in the nation per capita. Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked fourth for literacy and numeracy skills. When allowance is made for levels of GDP per capita, Sweden is ranked fifth overall and its score is well above that expected at its level of income.
    SwitzerlandIn 2017 Switzerland is ranked second overall, which combines ranks of 5 for Resources, 12 for Environment, 1 for Connectivity and 6 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP ranks 13th and expenditure per student fifth. Switzerland ranks third for R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions. Connectivity within the nation and externally is high. It is rated first for knowledge transfer with firms, 10th for joint publications with industry, and third for joint publications with international researchers. It is fifth for the proportion of students who are international. Web-based impact is ranked second. In Output, Switzerland is ranked fifth for publications per head and first for their average impact. Its universities are ranked first for average quality. It ranks 14th for the educational qualifications of its workforce and 13th for the number of researchers in the nation per head of population. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Switzerland is ranked 12th and its score is above that expected at its level of income.
    Taiwan-ChinaIn 2017 Taiwan-China is ranked 21st overall, which combines ranks of 29 for Resources, 10 for Environment, 22 for Connectivity and 24 for Output. Expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 21st, of which about one-half is private. In Connectivity, knowledge transfer with firms is rated 19th but joint publications with industry are ranked lower at 35th. Joint publications with international researchers are rated lowly at 47th. Taiwan-China ranks fifth for Web connectivity. In Output, it is ranked 15th for total publications and 36th for their average impact. It is ranked eighth for the educational qualifications of its workforce and ninth for the enrolment rate in higher education. Taiwan-China is well provided with researchers per head of population where it is ranked seventh. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Taiwan-China slips to 38th in the ranking and is below the level expected at its income level.
    ThailandIn 2017 Thailand is ranked equal 47th overall, which combines ranks of 48 for Resources, 26 for Environment, 35 for Connectivity and 47 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 45th and expenditure on R&D is ranked 42nd. In Connectivity, knowledge transfer with industry is 30th, a fall of 15 places from last year. Joint publications with industry are ranked 24th, those with international researchers are ranked 34th. The Output score is negatively impacted from having no university in the Shanghai top 500. Publications per head are ranked 46th and their average impact 40th. The (tertiary) educational qualifications of the workforce is ranked 40th. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Thailand ranks 45th but this includes a rank of 16th for Connectivity, an attribute which is important at Thailand’s stage in development. Thailand’s adjusted score is well below that expected at its level of income.
    TurkeyIn 2017 Turkey is ranked equal 40th overall, a rise of five places from last year. The overall rank includes ranks of 22 for Resources, 47 for Environment, 47 for Connectivity and 44 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP ranks ninth, total expenditure ranks 16th and research expenditure by tertiary institutions ranks 20th. Among the Connectivity variables the highest rank (29th) is for knowledge transfer with firms. But research links are not strong: for articles written jointly with international collaborators Turkey ranks 46th, for joint articles with industry it ranks 49th. In Output, Turkish institutions of higher education rank 17th for total publications but 38th for publications per head. Citations per article are ranked 44th. Participation rates are ranked 16th but it will take time for this to flow through to the educational qualifications of the workforce (currently ranked 42nd). The number of researchers per head of population is ranked 40th. Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 28th for literacy and numeracy. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Turkey’s rank is 37th and its score is below that expected at its level of income.
    UkraineIn 2017 Ukraine is ranked 35th overall, which combines ranks of 18 for Resources, 37 for Environment, 38 for Connectivity and 45 for Output. Ukraine is second for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP. However because of the high participation rate (ranked 11th) expenditure per student is in the lower quintile. R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions has a low ranking of 46. In Connectivity, Ukraine ranks 28th for joint publications with industry but only 43rd for knowledge transfer with industry. It ranks 35th for joint publications with international authors. In Output, Ukraine loses points for not having a flagship university in the Shanghai top 500. Ukraine ranks 48th for both total publications and publications per head of population and 50th for their average impact. The Output rank has fallen ten places over the last five years. Enrolment rates are ranked 11th and the level of (tertiary) educational qualifications of its workforce is ranked 16th. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Ukraine’s overall ranking improves to 22nd and its score is about that expected at its income level.
    United KingdomIn 2017 The United Kingdom is ranked third overall, which combines ranks of 6 for Resources, 1 for Environment, 2 for Connectivity and 2 for Output. As a share of GDP, government expenditure on higher education is ranked 21st, total expenditure eighth and research expenditure 19th. Expenditure per student is ranked fourth which reflects the lower than average participation rate (ranked 39th). Connectivity with industry is relatively strong: the United Kingdom ranks ninth for knowledge transfer with business and 13th for joint publications. In joint publications with international authors it is ranked 15th. The United Kingdom ranks fourth for the percentage of students who are international and fourth for the number of times external users access websites (deflated by population). In the Output category, the United Kingdom ranks third for total publications, eighth for publications per head of population and sixth for the average impact of articles. It ranks second for the quality of its best three universities. It is ranked ninth for the (tertiary) educational qualifications of the workforce and 16th for researchers per head of population. UK (England) students and recent graduates are ranked 21st for literacy and numeracy. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, the United Kingdom is ranked second and its score is well above the level expected at its income level.
    United StatesIn 2017 The United States is ranked first overall, which combines ranks of 6 for Resources, 1 for Environment, 13 for Connectivity and 1 for Output. Expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked first (split about evenly between public and private) and expenditure per student second. R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions as a share of GDP is ranked 22nd. Links with the private sector are strong: knowledge transfer is rated second and joint publications 15th. However, joint publications with international authors rank only 37th. Although the United States has the largest absolute number of international students, as a share of its total students it ranks only 22nd. It ranks first for the number of times external users access websites of tertiary institutions even when adjusted for population. In Output, the United States is first for total publications, 20th for publications per head of population and fourth for the average impact of articles. It ranks sixth for participation rates and seventh for the (tertiary) educational credentials of its workforce. It is ranked first for the quality of its best three universities and 20th for the national number of researchers per head of population. Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 20th for literacy and numeracy skills. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, the overall rank for the United States falls to 15th but its score is above the level expected at its income level.

    Overall - Dev

    RankCountryScore
    1Serbia26.9
    2United Kingdom21.2
    3South Africa20.2
    4Denmark16.8
    5Sweden16.6
    6Finland16.5
    7New Zealand13.7
    8Portugal11.6
    9Israel11.3
    10Australia10.8
    11Canada10.5
    12Switzerland10.4
    13Netherlands8.5
    14China7.0
    15United States5.4
    16Belgium4.7
    17India1.0
    18Austria-0.4
    19Malaysia-0.4
    20Singapore-2.3
    21Czech Republic-5.4
    22Ukraine-6.3
    23Greece-6.3
    24France-7.1
    25Slovenia-7.3
    26Hong Kong SAR -8.3
    27Spain-9.0
    28Brazil-10.6
    29Norway-10.7
    30Germany-11.8
    31Croatia-12.6
    32Poland-14.3
    33Ireland-15.8
    34Korea-18.4
    35Italy-18.6
    36Japan-20.1
    37Turkey-22.9
    38Taiwan - China-23.2
    39Chile-23.3
    40Iran-23.6
    41Hungary-25.3
    42Argentina-30.4
    43Russia-34.0
    44Slovakia-37.5
    45Thailand-39.8
    46Romania-41.0
    47Saudi Arabia-43.3
    48Mexico-44.3
    49Bulgaria-47.8
    50Indonesia-68.7

    Connectivity - Dev

    RankCountryScore
    1South Africa52.2
    2Ukraine48.0
    3Serbia35.5
    4United Kingdom34.1
    5New Zealand32.2
    6Switzerland26.1
    7Denmark21.7
    8Austria21.0
    9Hungary20.4
    10Finland18.0
    11Czech Republic14.0
    12Belgium13.8
    13Netherlands12.6
    14Canada11.6
    15Sweden11.3
    16Thailand6.9
    17India6.6
    18Australia5.0
    19Portugal-5.1
    20Greece-5.2
    21Hong Kong SAR -7.1
    22Israel-7.3
    23Germany-7.9
    24Bulgaria-9.5
    25Slovenia-9.9
    26United States-11.6
    27France-12.3
    28Ireland-14.4
    29Singapore-15.5
    30Romania-16.1
    31Indonesia-18.4
    32Italy-18.9
    33China-20.1
    34Spain-20.4
    35Norway-30.6
    36Slovakia-31.0
    37Taiwan-China-36.7
    38Malaysia-41.8
    39Japan-42.1
    40Croatia-43.8
    41Brazil-49.1
    42Korea-49.6
    43Poland-50.8
    44Chile-52.6
    45Saudi Arabia-57.4
    46Mexico-57.9
    47Russia-57.9
    48Turkey-62.8
    49Argentina-66.0
    50Iran-72.6

    Environment - Dev

    RankCountryScore
    1United States23.7
    2New Zealand19.8
    3Australia19.6
    4Singapore16.5
    5United Kingdom15.2
    6Hong Kong SAR 15.0
    7Belgium14.0
    8Finland13.7
    9Netherlands11.8
    10Taiwan-China11.2
    11Ireland10.6
    12Switzerland7.6
    13Malaysia7.6
    14Sweden6.2
    15Norway4.5
    16Chile4.4
    17Israel4.2
    18China3.8
    19Canada3.6
    20Poland3.4
    21Denmark2.4
    22France2.3
    23Germany1.0
    24Japan0.7
    25Austria-0.9
    26Thailand-1.3
    27Mexico-1.3
    28Russia-2.6
    29Indonesia-3.0
    30Argentina-3.1
    31Czech Republic-3.8
    32Romania-4.0
    33Spain-4.4
    34South Africa-5.6
    35Slovenia-6.6
    36Portugal-7.1
    37Ukraine-9.1
    38Italy-9.4
    39Hungary-10.9
    40Slovakia-12.6
    41Iran-14.7
    42Korea-16.8
    43Brazil-17.8
    44Croatia-18.5
    45Bulgaria-19.0
    46Serbia-19.9
    47Turkey-20.5
    48Saudi Arabia-20.6
    49India-21.4
    50Greece-56.7

    Output - Dev

    RankCountryScore
    1Serbia41.4
    2Portugal32.3
    3Israel27.6
    4China24.8
    5United Kingdom23.0
    6Sweden19.9
    7Greece19.1
    8Australia18.8
    9South Africa18.6
    10Denmark18.6
    11Finland13.1
    12Croatia12.6
    13New Zealand11.7
    14Canada7.6
    15United States7.2
    16Netherlands7.0
    17Switzerland6.6
    18Singapore0.9
    19Belgium-0.5
    20Slovenia-0.5
    21India-0.6
    22Brazil-1.0
    23Spain-2.0
    24Iran-2.1
    25Malaysia-7.8
    26Korea-8.4
    27Norway-9.0
    28Poland-9.2
    29France-11.2
    30Italy-15.6
    31Czech Republic-17.9
    32Austria-18.1
    33Germany-18.3
    34Ireland-20.9
    35Hong Kong SAR -22.5
    36Japan-22.6
    37Taiwan-China-28.1
    38Argentina-28.1
    39Chile-28.2
    40Turkey-31.0
    41Russia-36.8
    42Ukraine-55.1
    43Hungary-55.8
    44Slovakia-60.7
    45Romania-68.5
    46Mexico-71.2
    47Bulgaria-77.3
    48Saudi Arabia-79.4
    49Thailand-84.1
    50Indonesia-126.2

    Resources - Dev

    RankCountryScore
    1Malaysia47.6
    2Ukraine39.5
    3Serbia36.4
    4Turkey31.0
    5Sweden25.5
    6Finland24.7
    7Denmark22.9
    8Canada22.1
    9India20.9
    10Saudi Arabia20.2
    11South Africa17.1
    12Brazil16.2
    13Austria14.2
    14United Kingdom10.5
    15Portugal5.4
    16Switzerland5.2
    17Israel4.4
    18Netherlands4.2
    19China1.8
    20United States0.2
    21Czech Republic-1.1
    22France-3.1
    23Belgium-3.4
    24Hong Kong SAR -4.2
    25Poland-5.6
    26New Zealand-6.9
    27Greece-8.1
    28Australia-8.2
    29Korea-8.9
    30Norway-9.5
    31Chile-11.9
    32Japan-13.8
    33Singapore-14.5
    34Germany-15.3
    35Spain-16.2
    36Slovenia-18.8
    37Mexico-19.7
    38Slovakia-22.4
    39Hungary-24.1
    40Croatia-26.1
    41Iran-26.3
    42Argentina-26.7
    43Italy-33.6
    44Ireland-33.6
    45Taiwan-China-34.1
    46Russian Federation-36.0
    47Thailand-36.5
    48Romania-47.8
    49Bulgaria-55.7
    50Indonesia-69.7
  • Year
    2016

    Overall

    RankCountryScore
    1United States100.0
    2Switzerland87.2
    3Denmark84.8
    4United Kingdom84.3
    5Sweden82.2
    6Finland82.0
    7Netherlands81.6
    8Singapore80.6
    9Canada79.6
    10Australia77.6
    11Belgium75.7
    12Norway75.3
    13Austria74.7
    14New Zealand70.9
    14Hong Kong SAR 70.9
    16Germany70.3
    17France68.3
    18Israel67.6
    19Ireland65.2
    20Japan64.2
    21Taiwan62.4
    22Czech Republic60.0
    23Korea59.7
    24Spain58.3
    25Portugal56.6
    26Slovenia56.0
    27Malaysia54.4
    28Saudi Arabia53.8
    28Italy53.8
    30China51.8
    31Hungary51.6
    32Poland50.8
    33Chile49.7
    34Russian Federation49.1
    35Slovakia47.8
    36Greece47.0
    37South Africa45.6
    38Brazil45.1
    39Serbia43.9
    40Argentina43.7
    41Romania42.4
    42Ukraine42.1
    43Mexico41.3
    44Thailand40.7
    44Turkey40.7
    46Croatia40.5
    47Iran39.7
    48Bulgaria39.2
    49India38.0
    50Indonesia36.9

    Connectivity

    RankCountryScore
    1Switzerland100.0
    2Denmark88.1
    3Austria87.5
    4United Kingdom85.3
    5Belgium83.0
    6Netherlands81.8
    7Sweden81.5
    8Singapore80.8
    9Finland79.3
    10New Zealand77.4
    11Canada75.3
    12Hong Kong SAR 74.9
    13Australia72.7
    14United States72.4
    15Germany70.1
    16Norway69.6
    17Czech Republic65.2
    18Ireland63.8
    19France63.4
    20Israel58.9
    21Hungary57.6
    22Taiwan56.6
    23Slovenia52.3
    24Japan52.1
    25Spain51.2
    26Portugal51.1
    27Italy49.6
    28Korea49.5
    29Saudi Arabia48.4
    30South Africa45.9
    31Greece42.8
    32Indonesia42.0
    33Slovakia41.3
    34Malaysia40.9
    35Chile39.7
    36Thailand38.7
    37Romania38.6
    38Croatia35.5
    39Russian Federation31.7
    40Mexico31.7
    41Bulgaria31.6
    42Poland31.4
    43Serbia31.3
    44Argentina31.2
    45China29.5
    46Ukraine27.1
    47Brazil25.3
    48Turkey25.0
    49India24.6
    50Iran23.7

    Environment

    RankCountryScore
    1United States100.0
    2Hong Kong SAR 98.7
    3Finland97.0
    4New Zealand97.0
    5Netherlands96.7
    6Singapore94.8
    7Australia94.0
    8Switzerland93.6
    9Belgium92.9
    10United Kingdom91.5
    11Norway90.1
    12Poland88.8
    13Taiwan88.6
    14Malaysia87.9
    15Romania87.2
    16Chile86.8
    17Japan85.9
    18Ireland85.8
    19France84.8
    20Czech Republic84.1
    21Thailand84.1
    22Mexico83.9
    23Sweden83.5
    24Austria82.6
    25Russian Federation82.5
    26China82.2
    27Portugal82.1
    28Germany81.3
    29Indonesia81.2
    30Slovenia80.3
    31Denmark80.3
    32Israel80.1
    33Spain79.1
    34Canada78.4
    35Slovakia78.1
    36Argentina77.7
    37Hungary75.5
    38Bulgaria74.4
    39South Africa74.0
    40Brazil73.9
    41Serbia73.3
    42Italy72.5
    43India71.8
    44Korea71.4
    45Iran69.1
    46Ukraine69.0
    47Croatia67.5
    48Saudi Arabia64.1
    49Turkey62.3
    50Greece50.0

    Output

    RankCountryScore
    1United States100.0
    2United Kingdom69.8
    3Australia63.0
    4Denmark62.9
    5Sweden62.5
    5Switzerland62.3
    7Canada62.1
    8Netherlands60.9
    9Finland59.5
    10Israel57.4
    11Germany55.2
    12Norway54.6
    13Belgium54.5
    14France52.9
    15Singapore52.7
    16Japan52.0
    17Ireland48.8
    18Korea48.4
    19Austria46.9
    20China46.6
    21New Zealand45.8
    22Taiwan45.6
    23Hong Kong SAR 45.1
    24Spain44.9
    25Italy42.8
    26Portugal39.3
    27Slovenia39.2
    28Greece38.5
    29Russian Federation37.4
    30Czech Republic35.9
    31Poland33.9
    32Hungary33.5
    33Brazil31.7
    34Slovakia30.6
    35Chile27.8
    36Saudi Arabia27.4
    37South Africa26.2
    38Turkey25.8
    39Iran25.6
    40Croatia25.3
    41Argentina25.1
    42Bulgaria24.9
    43Malaysia24.8
    44Serbia24.8
    45Ukraine23.3
    46Romania20.0
    47India19.1
    48Thailand18.8
    49Mexico18.1
    50Indonesia14.8

    Resources

    RankCountryScore
    1Denmark100.0
    2Singapore93.8
    3United States92.7
    4Canada92.2
    5Sweden92.1
    6Switzerland87.7
    7Finland86.2
    8Austria83.5
    9Saudi Arabia83.2
    10Norway81.3
    11Netherlands79.0
    12United Kingdom75.4
    13Malaysia74.6
    14Australia68.3
    15Belgium66.9
    16Hong Kong SAR 65.8
    17Germany65.1
    18New Zealand63.9
    19France63.8
    20Israel60.3
    21Korea59.8
    22Czech Republic57.9
    23Japan56.6
    24Ireland55.8
    25Taiwan54.0
    26Ukraine53.0
    27Portugal51.5
    28Spain50.9
    29Turkey50.3
    30Serbia50.1
    31Slovenia49.4
    32Greece49.0
    33Chile48.8
    34Poland48.1
    35Brazil47.1
    36Argentina44.1
    37Italy42.7
    38India42.1
    39Slovakia41.7
    40Mexico40.4
    41Iran40.3
    42South Africa39.9
    43Hungary39.7
    44Russian Federation39.5
    45China35.9
    46Croatia34.9
    47Romania31.3
    48Thailand28.9
    49Bulgaria26.5
    50Indonesia19.1

    Overall - Dev

    RankCountryScore
    1United Kingdom21.6
    2Serbia19.2
    3Denmark17.7
    4Sweden15.2
    5China14.8
    6Finland14.0
    7South Africa12.4
    8Portugal10.1
    9Canada10.0
    10New Zealand10.0
    11Israel9.8
    12Switzerland9.7
    13Netherlands6.6
    14Australia6.4
    15India5.6
    16United States4.4
    17Belgium3.9
    18Hungary-0.5
    19Czech Republic-1.1
    20Austria-1.8
    21Malaysia-2.7
    22Brazil-6.2
    23Slovenia-6.4
    24Singapore-7.2
    25France-7.6
    26Germany-8.7
    27Norway-9.7
    28Poland-9.9
    29Spain-9.9
    30Greece-11.7
    31Korea-12.6
    32Hong Kong SAR -13.7
    33Ukraine-13.8
    34Ireland-17.4
    35Japan-18.5
    36Chile-18.8
    37Taiwan - China-19.3
    38Iran-21.4
    39Italy-23.6
    40Turkey-24.4
    41Romania-33.4
    42Thailand-33.8
    43Slovakia-35.2
    44Russia-36.0
    45Croatia-36.3
    46Argentina-38.2
    47Mexico-38.2
    48Saudi Arabia-44.9
    49Bulgaria-45.8
    50Indonesia-55.7

    Connectivity - Dev

    RankCountryScore
    1United Kingdom32.4
    2New Zealand29.4
    3South Africa26.9
    4Switzerland26.4
    5Denmark24.1
    6Czech Republic23.7
    7Hungary23.1
    8Austria19.5
    9Belgium17.9
    10Thailand16.4
    11Finland13.5
    12Sweden11.8
    13Canada11.3
    14Indonesia11.2
    15Netherlands6.2
    16Ukraine1.2
    17Australia0.4
    18Portugal-0.1
    19Romania-0.6
    20India-2.4
    21Germany-4.7
    22Hong Kong SAR -7.7
    23Bulgaria-13.6
    24Slovenia-13.7
    25United States-14.5
    26Spain-16.5
    27Serbia-16.7
    28Ireland-17.8
    29France-17.8
    30Greece-19.0
    31China-20.1
    32Singapore-20.8
    33Israel-20.8
    34Slovakia-21.9
    35Norway-26.9
    36Italy-27.7
    37Taiwan-China-28.6
    38Malaysia-30.3
    39Japan-37.5
    40Korea-40.0
    41Poland-41.5
    42Chile-44.5
    43Croatia-45.5
    44Brazil-46.4
    45Russia-53.8
    46Mexico-54.6
    47Saudi Arabia-60.8
    48Turkey-62.1
    49Argentina-72.4
    50Iran-80.6

    Environment - Dev

    RankCountryScore
    1United States10.1
    2Hong Kong SAR 9.3
    3New Zealand8.7
    4Finland8.7
    5Netherlands8.6
    6Singapore7.5
    7Australia7.2
    8Switzerland6.6
    9Belgium6.5
    10United Kingdom5.8
    11Norway4.9
    12Taiwan-China4.7
    13Poland3.6
    14Malaysia3.4
    15Romania2.4
    16Ireland2.3
    17Chile2.3
    18France1.9
    19Japan1.4
    20Czech Republic1.1
    21Sweden1.0
    22Thailand0.9
    23Austria0.4
    24China0.1
    25Portugal0.1
    26Russia-0.2
    27Mexico-0.4
    28Indonesia-0.5
    29Germany-0.8
    30Slovenia-1.0
    31Israel-1.3
    32Denmark-1.4
    33Spain-2.2
    34Canada-2.9
    35Argentina-3.4
    36Slovakia-3.6
    37Hungary-4.7
    38Bulgaria-5.5
    39Serbia-6.2
    40Italy-6.6
    41Brazil-6.8
    42India-7.0
    43Korea-7.1
    44South Africa-7.3
    45Iran-8.8
    46Ukraine-9.6
    47Croatia-11.1
    48Saudi Arabia-13.3
    49Turkey-15.5
    50Greece-28.5

    Output - Dev

    RankCountryScore
    1Serbia39.3
    2China38.5
    3Israel35.3
    4United Kingdom28.2
    5Portugal26.5
    6Sweden20.0
    7Denmark17.1
    8Australia16.0
    9Finland13.5
    10South Africa11.0
    11United States8.7
    12Canada8.6
    13Netherlands7.5
    14Switzerland7.0
    15India5.8
    16Brazil4.0
    17New Zealand3.4
    18Greece2.6
    19Hungary1.4
    20Belgium-0.3
    21Slovenia-0.5
    22Iran-3.5
    23Korea-3.8
    24Poland-4.2
    25Singapore-6.1
    26Spain-6.8
    27Norway-7.3
    28France-7.9
    29Malaysia-13.0
    30Germany-13.9
    31Chile-15.2
    32Czech Republic-17.9
    33Japan-20.3
    34Ireland-20.5
    35Austria-20.6
    36Italy-22.3
    37Taiwan-China-22.5
    38Hong Kong SAR -24.2
    39Turkey-30.6
    40Ukraine-43.4
    41Russia-45.2
    42Argentina-46.1
    43Croatia-47.5
    44Romania-63.7
    45Mexico-63.7
    46Slovakia-63.8
    47Bulgaria-76.8
    48Thailand-80.8
    49Saudi Arabia-84.7
    50Indonesia-116.4

    Resources - Dev

    RankCountryScore
    1Serbia40.5
    2Malaysia39.6
    3Denmark31.4
    4Ukraine26.4
    5India25.7
    6Canada24.6
    7Sweden23.2
    8Finland20.8
    9South Africa20.3
    10Saudi Arabia18.8
    11Turkey17.0
    12China16.8
    13Brazil14.2
    14United Kingdom13.1
    15Austria12.2
    16United States8.9
    17Czech Republic5.7
    18New Zealand4.9
    19Netherlands3.3
    20Switzerland1.4
    21Israel0.8
    22Portugal-2.5
    23Poland-2.9
    24Belgium-4.5
    25France-6.5
    26Australia-7.6
    27Korea-8.5
    28Mexico-8.7
    29Germany-10.0
    30Iran-10.4
    31Singapore-10.6
    32Norway-12.2
    33Japan-15.8
    34Greece-16.1
    35Slovenia-16.2
    36Spain-17.0
    37Chile-21.5
    38Hong Kong SAR -21.9
    39Argentina-22.7
    40Slovakia-23.0
    41Hungary-23.7
    42Thailand-25.0
    43Taiwan-China-27.6
    44Croatia-29.7
    45Ireland-30.3
    46Russia-35.4
    47Italy-38.9
    48Romania-41.1
    49Bulgaria-56.3
    50Indonesia-56.4
  • Year
    2015

    Overall

    RankCountryScore
    1United States100
    2Switzerland87
    3Denmark85
    4Finland85
    5Sweden85
    6Canada83
    7Netherlands82
    8United Kingdom81
    9Singapore80
    10Australia77
    11Belgium76
    12Norway75
    13Austria75
    14Germany72
    15Hong Kong SAR 70
    16New Zealand70
    17France69
    18Ireland69
    19Israel66
    20Japan66
    21Taiwan-China64
    22Korea60
    23Czech Republic60
    24Spain59
    25Portugal58
    26Slovenia57
    27Malaysia 55
    28Saudi Arabia55
    29Italy54
    30Hungary53
    31Chile 51
    32Poland51
    33Russian Federation50
    34China48
    35Greece48
    36Slovakia47
    37Serbia46
    38Argentina45
    39South Africa45
    40Brazil45
    41Ukraine 44
    42Romania44
    43Bulgaria42
    44Mexico42
    45Croatia42
    46Thailand 40
    47Iran 39
    48Indonesia39
    49Turkey 38
    50India 38

    Connectivity

    RankCountryScore
    1Switzerland100
    2Austria90
    3Sweden89
    4Denmark87
    5United Kingdom84
    6Singapore83
    7Finland82
    8Netherlands81
    9Belgium81
    10New Zealand76
    11Canada75
    12United States75
    13Australia75
    14Germany72
    15Hong Kong SAR 70
    16Norway69
    17Ireland66
    18France65
    19Czech Republic64
    20Hungary59
    21Israel55
    22Japan54
    23Slovenia53
    24Taiwan-China52
    25Portugal52
    26South Africa52
    27Spain51
    28Italy49
    29Korea48
    30Saudi Arabia47
    31Indonesia47
    32Malaysia 46
    33Greece45
    34Slovakia42
    35Chile 41
    36Bulgaria41
    37Thailand 38
    38Croatia38
    39Romania36
    40Russian Federation34
    41Ukraine 33
    42Argentina33
    43Mexico32
    44Poland32
    45Serbia30
    46Brazil27
    47China27
    48Turkey 25
    49India 24
    50Iran 22

    Environment

    RankCountryScore
    1United States100
    2Hong Kong SAR 100
    3Finland99
    4Netherlands98
    5New Zealand94
    6Australia93
    7Belgium93
    8United Kingdom92
    9Singapore92
    10Romania91
    11Poland90
    12Norway90
    13Chile 89
    14Taiwan-China89
    15Malaysia 89
    16Ireland87
    17Switzerland86
    18France86
    19Japan85
    20Sweden85
    21Mexico84
    22Czech Republic84
    23Austria84
    24China84
    25Russian Federation84
    26Thailand 84
    27Portugal83
    28Indonesia83
    29Germany82
    30Slovenia81
    31Denmark81
    32Spain80
    33Canada80
    34Israel80
    35Slovakia79
    36Hungary76
    37Brazil76
    38Bulgaria76
    39Argentina75
    40Serbia75
    41South Africa74
    42Italy73
    43Korea72
    44Croatia69
    45Iran 69
    46Ukraine 68
    47India 68
    48Saudi Arabia64
    49Turkey 63
    50Greece51

    Output

    RankCountryScore
    1United States100
    2United Kingdom70
    3Canada63
    4Denmark62
    5Switzerland61
    6Sweden61
    7Australia61
    8Finland60
    9Netherlands59
    10Israel57
    11Germany56
    12Belgium54
    13Japan53
    14Norway53
    15France51
    16Singapore50
    17Ireland49
    18New Zealand48
    19Korea48
    20Austria47
    21Taiwan-China45
    22Spain44
    23Hong Kong SAR 43
    24Italy42
    25China41
    26Portugal39
    27Slovenia39
    28Russian Federation38
    29Greece38
    30Czech Republic35
    31Hungary34
    32Poland32
    33Slovakia29
    34Brazil28
    35Saudi Arabia28
    36Argentina27
    37Chile 27
    38South Africa25
    39Croatia25
    40Bulgaria25
    41Serbia25
    42Turkey 25
    43Iran 24
    44Malaysia 23
    45Ukraine 23
    46Romania21
    47India 20
    48Thailand 19
    49Mexico18
    50Indonesia14

    Resources

    RankCountryScore
    1Denmark100
    2Canada100
    3Singapore94
    4Sweden93
    5Switzerland92
    6Finland91
    7United States85
    8Saudi Arabia83
    9Norway82
    10Netherlands79
    11Austria76
    12Malaysia 73
    13Belgium67
    14Hong Kong SAR 67
    15Germany65
    16France65
    17Ireland65
    18Australia65
    19Korea62
    20Taiwan-China61
    21Israel58
    22Czech Republic57
    23Serbia57
    24Japan56
    25Portugal55
    26United Kingdom55
    27New Zealand55
    28Ukraine 54
    29Spain54
    30Chile 51
    31Slovenia50
    32Greece50
    33Poland47
    34Brazil45
    35Argentina45
    36Italy43
    37Hungary43
    38Iran 42
    39India 41
    40Russian Federation39
    41Slovakia39
    42Mexico38
    43Turkey 37
    44Croatia34
    45Romania33
    46South Africa31
    47China31
    48Bulgaria27
    49Thailand 24
    50Indonesia21
  • Year
    2014

    Overall

    RankCountryScore
    1United States100.0
    2Sweden86.7
    3Denmark82.9
    4Canada82.9
    5Finland82.2
    6Switzerland81.5
    7Netherlands80.4
    8United Kingdom79.2
    9Australia78.0
    10Singapore76.3
    11Norway75.0
    12Austria73.7
    13Belgium73.1
    14Germany71.1
    15Hong Kong SAR 70.6
    16New Zealand70.4
    17Ireland69.7
    18France68.7
    19Israel68.5
    20Japan64.9
    21Korea61.6
    22Taiwan- China61.3
    23Spain61.1
    24Portugal60.3
    25Slovenia59.6
    26Czech Republic58.2
    27Italy53.7
    28Malaysia53.4
    29Hungary52.5
    30Saudi Arabia52.4
    31Poland50.8
    32Greece50.3
    33Chile49.1
    34Serbia48.7
    35China48.6
    36Russian Federation48.6
    37Slovakia47.9
    38Brazil46.1
    39Romania45.4
    40Bulgaria45.0
    41Argentina44.9
    42Thailand43.9
    43Ukraine43.9
    44Croatia43.7
    45South Africa43.4
    46Mexico42.6
    47Turkey39.1
    48Indonesia38.5
    49Iran37.8
    50India36.8

    Connectivity

    RankCountryScore
    1Switzerland100
    2Sweden98
    3United Kingdom91
    4Denmark90
    5Singapore89
    6Austria88
    7Hong Kong SAR 88
    8Australia88
    9Netherlands84
    10Canada80
    11Finland78
    12Belgium77
    13New Zealand76
    14Germany76
    15United States74
    16Israel72
    17Norway70
    18Ireland69
    19Czech Republic66
    20France66
    21Hungary62
    22South Africa61
    23Spain60
    24Slovenia60
    25Indonesia58
    26Portugal57
    27Italy56
    28Saudi Arabia56
    29Taiwan-China56
    30Thailand54
    31Japan54
    32Korea51
    33Greece49
    34Slovakia45
    35Malaysia45
    36Croatia44
    37Chile43
    38Bulgaria41
    39Serbia40
    40Mexico39
    41Argentina37
    42Romania36
    43Brazil33
    44Ukraine31
    45Turkey30
    46China30
    47Poland30
    48Russian Fed28
    49India24
    50Iran23

    Environment

    RankCountryScore
    1Netherlands100
    2New Zealand99
    3United States99
    4Hong Kong SAR 98
    5Belgium97
    6Finland97
    7Poland96
    8Australia95
    9Bulgaria93
    10Sweden92
    11Singapore92
    12Czech Republic92
    13Romania92
    14France91
    15Portugal91
    16United Kingdom91
    17Norway90
    18Slovenia90
    19Taiwan-China90
    20Ireland89
    21Japan89
    22Israel89
    23Austria89
    24Slovakia89
    25Chile88
    26Malaysia88
    27Serbia86
    28China85
    29Russian Fed85
    30Thailand85
    31Mexico85
    32Spain84
    33Canada83
    34Germany83
    35Switzerland83
    36Denmark83
    37Indonesia82
    38Argentina82
    39Korea81
    40Brazil80
    41Hungary78
    42Italy76
    43Ukraine75
    44Iran73
    45Croatia72
    46South Africa72
    47India70
    48Turkey70
    49Greece67
    50Saudi Arabia64

    Output

    RankCountryScore
    1United States100
    2United Kingdom63
    3Canada61
    4Sweden58
    5Finland58
    6Australia56
    7Denmark56
    8Switzerland55
    9Netherlands53
    10Germany53
    11Japan51
    12Norway51
    13Belgium48
    14Israel48
    15New Zealand47
    16Ireland47
    17France47
    18Korea46
    19Singapore45
    20Taiwan-China43
    21Austria43
    22Spain41
    23Hong Kong SAR 40
    24Slovenia39
    25China39
    26Italy36
    27Portugal36
    28Russian Fed35
    29Greece35
    30Czech Republic33
    31Hungary32
    32Poland31
    33Brazil27
    34Slovakia27
    35Croatia26
    36Bulgaria25
    37Chile24
    38Ukraine24
    39Serbia23
    40Argentina23
    41Turkey23
    42Iran22
    43South Africa21
    44Malaysia21
    45Romania20
    46Saudi Arabia20
    47Thailand19
    48India18
    49Mexico16
    50Indonesia11

    Resources

    RankCountryScore
    1Denmark100
    2Canada100
    3Sweden95
    4United States91
    5Finland91
    6Norway86
    7Switzerland86
    8Saudi Arabia84
    9Singapore83
    10Netherlands82
    11Austria79
    12Malaysia 74
    13Ireland70
    14Belgium68
    15France67
    16Australia66
    17Germany65
    18Korea62
    19Hong Kong SAR 61
    20Israel61
    21United Kingdom59
    22Portugal59
    23New Zealand57
    24Spain57
    25Japan55
    26Serbia53
    27Taiwan-China53
    28Ukraine 50
    29Slovenia49
    30Poland48
    31Chile 48
    32Greece48
    33Czech Republic46
    34Brazil46
    35Italy44
    36Russian Fed43
    37Argentina42
    38Romania42
    39Mexico42
    40India 41
    41Hungary40
    42Iran 36
    43Turkey 36
    44Croatia34
    45Slovakia34
    46China33
    47Thailand 27
    48South Africa26
    49Bulgaria26
    50Indonesia16
  • Year
    2013

    Overall

    RankCountryScore
    1United States100.0
    2Sweden85.2
    3Switzerland81.6
    4Canada80.0
    5Denmark79.8
    6Finland79.4
    7Netherlands78.2
    8Australia77.2
    9Singapore76.6
    10United Kingdom74.9
    11Austria71.8
    12Norway71.8
    13Belgium71.0
    14New Zealand69.7
    15Germany68.2
    16Hong Kong SAR 67.6
    17France67.6
    18Ireland66.8
    19Israel63.8
    20Spain60.5
    21Japan59.6
    22Portugal59.1
    23Slovenia58.4
    24Korea57.6
    25Czech Republic56.7
    26Taiwan56.0
    27Malaysia52.4
    28Saudi Arabia52.3
    29Italy52.1
    30Poland51.9
    31Greece50.5
    32Serbia50.0
    33Russian Federation49.5
    34Hungary49.2
    35Chile49.0
    36Ukraine49.0
    37Slovakia47.9
    38Bulgaria47.7
    39Romania47.5
    40Argentina45.8
    41Brazil45.6
    42China44.5
    43Mexico42.8
    44Croatia39.2
    45Turkey38.9
    46South Africa38.1
    47Thailand37.9
    48Iran37.2
    49India36.3
    50Indonesia35.3

    Connectivity

    RankCountryScore
    1Switzerland100
    2Australia97
    3Singapore94
    4Sweden93
    5Austria90
    6Hong Kong SAR 86
    7United Kingdom81
    8Netherlands77
    9New Zealand73
    10United States72
    11Denmark71
    12Belgium69
    13Germany66
    14Norway65
    15Czech Republic64
    16Canada63
    17Spain63
    18Slovenia61
    19France60
    20Finland60
    21Portugal58
    22Ireland55
    23Slovakia54
    24South Africa54
    25Indonesia53
    26Italy53
    27Ukraine51
    28Saudi Arabia48
    29Hungary48
    30Israel47
    31Romania46
    32Serbia45
    33Bulgaria43
    34Chile42
    35Russian Federation41
    36Argentina41
    37Malaysia40
    38Greece40
    39Thailand38
    40Brazil38
    41Mexico38
    42Poland30
    43Japan28
    44Turkey27
    45Croatia25
    46Taiwan24
    47Korea22
    48India16
    49Iran14
    50China12

    Environment

    RankCountryScore
    1Netherlands100
    2New Zealand99
    3United States99
    4Poland97
    5Belgium97
    6Hong Kong SAR 97
    7Finland96
    8Australia96
    9Bulgaria96
    10Sweden93
    11Czech Republic93
    12Singapore92
    13United Kingdom91
    14France90
    15Taiwan90
    16Romania90
    17Norway90
    18Japan89
    19Portugal89
    20Slovakia89
    21Israel89
    22Slovenia88
    23Austria88
    24Ireland88
    25Malaysia87
    26Chile87
    27Serbia85
    28Mexico85
    29China85
    30Canada84
    31Russian Federation84
    32Thailand84
    33Argentina84
    34Denmark83
    35Spain83
    36Korea82
    37Switzerland82
    38Germany82
    39Indonesia81
    40Brazil80
    41Hungary77
    42Ukraine75
    43Italy74
    44Iran73
    45India71
    46Croatia70
    47Turkey70
    48Greece68
    49Saudi Arabia64
    50South Africa63

    Output

    RankCountryScore
    1United States100
    2United Kingdom63
    3Canada60
    4Sweden57
    5Finland57
    6Switzerland57
    7Australia56
    8Denmark55
    9Germany53
    10Netherlands52
    11Norway49
    12Israel49
    13New Zealand49
    14Japan48
    15France47
    16Belgium47
    17Korea46
    18Singapore45
    19Ireland45
    20Taiwan44
    21Austria42
    22Hong Kong SAR 41
    23Spain40
    24Slovenia38
    25Italy36
    26China36
    27Portugal35
    28Greece34
    29Czech Republic33
    30Hungary31
    31Poland31
    32Russian Federation27
    33Slovakia27
    34Brazil25
    35Ukraine25
    36Argentina24
    37Bulgaria24
    38Croatia23
    39Chile23
    40Turkey22
    41Romania22
    42Serbia22
    43Iran21
    44South Africa21
    45Saudi Arabia20
    46Malaysia19
    47Thailand19
    48India18
    49Mexico17
    50Indonesia11

    Resources

    RankCountryScore
    1Denmark100
    2Canada97
    3Sweden96
    4Finland92
    5United States91
    6Switzerland89
    7Saudi Arabia84
    8Singapore83
    9Netherlands83
    10Norway79
    11Austria76
    12Ireland74
    13Malaysia71
    14Belgium70
    15France68
    16Germany65
    17Australia64
    18Korea63
    19Israel61
    20Portugal59
    21New Zealand59
    22Spain58
    23Hong Kong SAR 58
    24United Kingdom57
    25Japan57
    26Serbia57
    27Greece56
    28Taiwan53
    29Chile52
    30Ukraine52
    31Russian Federation50
    32Slovenia49
    33Poland49
    34Czech Republic46
    35Italy45
    36Hungary44
    37Romania43
    38Brazil42
    39Mexico42
    40Argentina41
    41India41
    42Croatia38
    43Iran38
    44Bulgaria38
    45Turkey38
    46China33
    47Slovakia33
    48South Africa26
    49Thailand22
    50Indonesia17
  • Year
    2012

    Overall

    RankCountryScore
    1United States100
    2Sweden84
    3Canada83
    4Finland81
    5Switzerland80
    6Denmark80
    7Australia78
    8Netherlands77
    9Norway77
    10United Kingdom77
    11Singapore76
    12Austria74
    13Belgium74
    14New Zealand73
    15France71
    16Ireland70
    17Germany69
    18Israel67
    19Japan64
    20Taiwan62
    21Korea60
    22Portugal60
    23Spain60
    24Ukraine59
    25Czech Republic58
    26Poland56
    27Slovenia56
    28Greece55
    29Italy54
    30Bulgaria53
    31Russian Federation52
    32Romania51
    33Hungary51
    34Slovakia51
    35Malaysia50
    36Chile49
    37Argentina49
    38China48
    39Brazil47
    40Thailand47
    41Iran46
    42Mexico45
    43Croatia45
    44Turkey44
    45South Africa43
    46Indonesia37
    47India34

    Connectivity

    RankCountryScore
    1Austria100
    2Singapore96
    3Switzerland96
    4Australia94
    5New Zealand83
    6United Kingdom82
    7France77
    8Belgium71
    9Norway67
    10Sweden65
    11Ireland65
    12Denmark64
    13South Africa62
    14Germany60
    15Indonesia57
    16Canada55
    17Finland54
    18Bulgaria53
    19Netherlands52
    20Slovakia51
    21Czech Republic50
    22Chile50
    23Portugal50
    24Hungary49
    25Argentina44
    26Israel43
    27Italy43
    28Spain42
    29Greece41
    30Thailand40
    31Slovenia40
    32Ukraine39
    33Mexico39
    34Malaysia38
    35United States35
    36Russian Federation34
    37Romania33
    38Croatia29
    39Poland29
    40Japan29
    41Korea26
    42Brazil22
    43Taiwan21
    44India19
    45Turkey17
    46Iran17
    47China13

    Environment

    RankCountryScore
    1Netherlands100
    2New Zealand100
    3United States99
    4Poland98
    5Belgium98
    6Australia98
    7Bulgaria95
    8Sweden94
    9Czech Republic94
    10France94
    11Finland93
    12United Kingdom92
    13Singapore92
    14Romania91
    15Taiwan91
    16Japan91
    17Slovakia90
    18Israel90
    19Portugal89
    20Ireland88
    21Austria87
    22Malaysia87
    23Norway86
    24Mexico85
    25China85
    26Ukraine85
    27Canada84
    28Russian Federation84
    29Thailand84
    30Argentina84
    31Chile83
    32Switzerland82
    33Germany82
    34Spain82
    35Korea82
    36Brazil82
    37Slovenia81
    38Denmark81
    39Indonesia81
    40Hungary78
    41Italy74
    42Iran72
    43Croatia70
    44India69
    45South Africa69
    46Turkey68
    47Greece68

    Output

    RankCountryScore
    1United States100
    2United Kingdom62
    3Canada60
    4Finland57
    5Sweden57
    6Denmark55
    7Australia54
    8Switzerland54
    9Germany53
    10Netherlands51
    11Japan49
    12Norway48
    13Israel47
    14Belgium47
    15New Zealand45
    16Korea42
    17Ireland42
    18Austria42
    19France41
    20Taiwan40
    21Singapore40
    22Spain39
    23Slovenia37
    24Italy37
    25China34
    26Greece33
    27Portugal33
    28Russian Federation31
    29Czech Republic31
    30Hungary30
    31Poland29
    32Slovakia26
    33Brazil25
    34Ukraine24
    35Argentina23
    36Bulgaria23
    37Romania22
    38Chile22
    39Croatia22
    40Turkey21
    41Iran20
    42South Africa19
    43Thailand18
    44India16
    45Mexico16
    46Malaysia15
    47Indonesia11

    Resources

    RankCountryScore
    1Canada100
    2Denmark97
    3Sweden94
    4United States92
    5Norway92
    6Finland89
    7Switzerland87
    8Singapore82
    9Netherlands80
    10Ukraine76
    11Austria75
    12Ireland72
    13Belgium69
    14France67
    15Israel64
    16Germany63
    17Taiwan63
    18Australia63
    19Greece63
    20Korea60
    21New Zealand60
    22Portugal58
    23Malaysia58
    24Spain58
    25Iran57
    26United Kingdom56
    27Turkey53
    28Japan52
    29Poland49
    30Slovenia48
    31Italy47
    32Croatia47
    33Romania47
    34Czech Republic47
    35Russian Federation43
    36Brazil42
    37Thailand42
    38Chile41
    39Mexico40
    40Hungary40
    41Argentina39
    42Bulgaria38
    43South Africa35
    44China33
    45Slovakia32
    46India23
    47Indonesia16